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West Virginia Achieves Professional Development Series. Volume XIX. Valuing All Students and Addressing Social, Emotional and Physical Needs. West Virginia Department of Education Mission.

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West virginia achieves professional development series
West Virginia Achieves Professional Development Series

Volume XIX

Valuing All Students and Addressing Social, Emotional and Physical Needs

West virginia department of education mission
West Virginia Department of Education Mission

The West Virginia Department of Education, in conjunction with the Regional Education Service Agencies and the Office of Performance Audits, will create systemic conditions, processes and structures within the West Virginia public school system that result in (1) all students achieving mastery and beyond and (2) closing the achievement gap among sub-groups of the student population.

Robert hutchins the conflict in education in a democratic society
Robert HutchinsThe Conflict in Education in a Democratic Society

“Perhaps the greatest idea that America has given the world is education for all. The world is entitled to know whether this idea means that everybody can be educated or simply that everyone must go to school.”

What we know
What We Know…

  • An emerging body of research identifies characteristics of high performing school systems.

  • These school systems have made significant progress in bringing all students to mastery and in closing the achievement gap.

  • These systems share characteristics described in The West Virginia Framework for High Performing Schools.

West virginia achieves professional development series









Dedicated to “Learning for ALL…Whatever It Takes”


Segment 1: Culture that Accepts Responsibility

for ALL Students

Segment 2: Support Systems for Students’

Physical, Social and Emotional Needs

Segment 3: Research-based Approaches for

meeting needs of sub-groups

Segment 1
Segment 1

Culture that Accepts Responsibility for ALL Students

Think pair share

  • What are some measures for determining if your district truly accepts responsibility for all students?

  • How does your district examine, disseminate and utilize data to examine this issue?

Measuring your expectations
Measuring Your Expectations

  • Do all students feel safe in the classrooms, hallways, and lunchroom?

  • Does the school challenge anyone making generalizations about racial and ethnic groups?

  • Are examples of diverse cultures, authors, and thinkers woven into the curriculum and displayed in hallways, the library and classrooms?

    (adapted from Confronting the Racism of Low Expectations,

    Landsman, 2004)

Does your school have high expectations for all students
Does Your School Have High Expectations for All Students?

  • Do teachers expect ALL students to complete and turn in work, know the answers to different levels of questions, work in class, follow class guidelines, and respond to structure?

  • Do parents of the diverse ethnic groups feel welcome at conferences, parent advisory group meetings and school events?

  • Do students of all ethnicities and backgrounds successfully participate in all academic courses and programs?

    (adapted from Confronting the Racism of Low Expectations,

    Landsman, 2004)

Steps for change
Steps for Change

  • Exploring the Issues Intellectually

  • Engaging in Dialogue

  • Immersing Ourselves in Other Cultures

  • Creating a Safe Environment

  • Committing Ourselves to Activism

    White, J.L. & Cones, J. H. (1999). Black man emerging:

    Facing the past and seizing a future in America. New York:

    W. H. Freeman

Case study boston schools
Case Study: Boston Schools


  • Adopted Standards-Based Approach Reform Efforts (1996-2001)

  • Results: Students scoring in upper three performance levels of state test increased in reading from 75% to 81% and in mathematics from 52% to 63%

    “The Bottom Line: Closing the Achievement Gap”In every grade, every student will reach Proficiency on MCAS: regular education students, special education students, and English language learners.”

  • http://boston.k12.ma.us/teach/offices.pdf

  • Case study boston schools1
    Case Study: Boston Schools

    • 5 Year School Improvement Planning

    • The Six Essentials (2001-2006)

      (3 Essentials relate to Curriculum and Instruction)

      • Focus on literacy and mathematics

        3. Focus professional development to improve instruction

        4. Identify & replicate best practices for instruction

    Case study boston schools2
    Case Study: Boston Schools

    Six Essentials of 5 Year School Improvement Plan

    (3 Essentials relate to Student/Parent Support)

    2. Use Student Work/Data to identify student needs, improve instruction and assess progress

    5. Align all resources with instructional focus

    6. Engage families, community and partners to support school improvement

    Jigsaw activity
    Jigsaw Activity

    • Distribute the 1 page description for each of the following “Essentials” http://boston.k12.ma.us/teach/offices.pdf

      • using student work/data to identify needs,

      • aligning resources and

      • engaging families/community

    • Summarize how the expectations for each reflect a culture that accepts responsibility for all students

    Segment 2
    Segment 2

    Support Systems for Addressing Student Physical, Social, and Emotional Needs

    7 th grade class of 25 typical instructional day







    z z z z

    7th Grade Class of 25(Typical Instructional Day)

    Social and emotional learning a coordinating framework
    Social and Emotional LearningA Coordinating Framework

    West virginia achieves professional development series

    Healthy Kids MakeBetter Students.Better Students MakeHealthy Communities.

    Coordinated school health





    Family &







    Promotion for











    Psychological &

    Social Services

    Coordinated School Health

    West virginia achieves professional development series

    The Solution--CSH is about- Involving parents- Keeping kids healthy over time- Supporting a student’s capacity to learn- Imparting skills, knowledge, & judgment to help kids make smart choices for life- Reinforcing positive behaviors- Connecting good health & learning

    West virginia achieves professional development series

    CSH is also about

    • Helping young people grow into healthy, productive adults- Focusing on physical & emotional well-being- Coordinating parents, schools, administrators, & communities as key partners

    West virginia achieves professional development series

    Schools could do more thanperhaps any other single institutionin society to help young people,and the adults they will become,live healthier, longer, more satisfying,and more productive lives.”— Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development

    Segment 3
    Segment 3

    Research-based Approaches to Meeting Specific Needs of Subgroups

    Legal requirements
    Legal Requirements

    • All students are provided an equal opportunity to obtain a high-quality education and reach, at a minimum, proficiency on challenging academic achievement standards and state academic assessments. (No Child Left Behind Act, 2001)

    • For students with disabilities, access to the general education curriculum is mandated by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (formerly IDEA ’97).

    The challenge for all teachers
    The Challenge for All Teachers

    • Providing access to challenging curriculum

    • Using research-based instructional practices for all students

    • Making decisions based on evidence of documented progress

    West virginia achieves professional development series

    Research-Supported Practice

    Student Needs Addressed

    Practice Description

    Accessibility Improved


    Practice Implications


    Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI)

    Application to





    Fine motor challenges

    Attention deficit

    Minimal organizational strategies

    Difficulty decoding and comprehending text

    Communication delays

    Weak problem-solving skills

    Difficulty with abstract concepts

    Computer programs or high-tech equipment provide content instruction to students to enable them to meet standards and goals.

    Sample features–

    Independent instruction for student

    May measure student skill and progress


    Immediate feedback

    Allows multiple means of interacting with curricular materials

    Allows teachers to individualize lessons to meet children’s specific goals while helping them meet state and local standards

    CAI may be an academic motivator for students with disabilities (Hitchcock & Noonan, 2000).

    CAI increases wait time and builds on mastered skills (Hitchcock & Noonan, 2000; Zimmerman, 1998).

    Effectiveness is attributed to the higher interaction required for responses and active learning (Lahm, 1996).

    Varying results of effectiveness from research (Kroesbergen & Van Luit, 2003)

    Allows great flexibility in use because it is not subject specific

    Requires professional development for use in classrooms

    Requires purchase of technology and software, if not currently available

    Requires that individuals with expertise be available for trouble shooting

    Requires time for teacher planning and instructing students to use software

    Successful student access to the curriculum for all students
    Successful Student Access to the Curriculum for All Students

    • School engages in a paradigm shift that includes

      • Changes in attitudes and beliefs

      • Parent involvement

      • Pre-service training and professional development

      • Support from district leaders and state legislators

      • Staff commitment and collaboration

      • Shared responsibility for learning outcomes of special education students

    What is access to the general education curriculum for students with disabilities
    What is Access to the General Education Curriculum for Students with Disabilities?

    • Active learning of the content and skills that define the regular education curriculum.

    • Participation in age-appropriate standards based instructional activities.

    • Implementation of validated programs and practices.

    • Utilization of documented progress for educational decision-making.

    Minority low ses
    Minority/Low SES Students with Disabilities?

    • The Development Environment

    • Home Learning Conditions

    • Student Mobility

    • The Home-School Connection

    • School Factors

    West virginia achieves professional development series

    African American Children Students with Disabilities?

    • What do schools do wrong?

    • Pushing the Curriculum Down

    • Ignoring (or ignorance of) Student Background

    • Having inequality in Preschool Experience

    West virginia achieves professional development series
    LEP Students with Disabilities?

    • High-Quality Instruction

    • The SIOP Model

    • ELLs' Academic Literacy

    • ELLs School Success

    Action plan
    ACTION PLAN Students with Disabilities?

    • In light of the NCLB requirements that all sub-groups will achieve mastery, how is your district/school improvement plan designed to implement research-based approaches that equalize opportunities for all students, especially those at risk with regard to the following:

      • A culture that accepts responsibility for all students regardless of background

      • A support system for addressing student physical, social and emotional needs

      • A planned approach to meet the specific needs of the sub-groups

    Sources of additional information
    Sources of Additional Information Students with Disabilities?

    Lahm, E. (1996). Software that engages young children with disabilities: A study of design features. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 11(2), 115–125.

    Hauser, J., & Malouf, D.B. (1996). A federal perspective on special education technology. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 29(5), 504–512.

    Hitchcock C.H., & Noonan, M.J. (2000). Computer-assisted instruction of early academic skills. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 20(3), 145–159.

    Hutinger, P.L. (1996). Computer applications in programs for young children with disabilities: Recurring themes. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 11(2) 105–115.

    Kroesbergen, E.H., & Van Luit, J.E.H. (2003). Mathematics interventions for children with special educational needs: A meta-analysis. Remedial and Special Education, 24, 97–115.

    Office of U.S. Special Education Programs (2000). Twenty-second annual report to Congress, (Chapter 3, pp. 37–48). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education

    Zimmerman, S.O. (1998). Problem-solving tasks on the microcomputer: A look at the performance of students with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 21(10), 637–641.

    Web Resources: The Access Center: Improving Outcomes for All Students K – 8. Available at http://www.k8accesscenter.org. Go to Resource, then Universal Design.

    CAST. Available athttp://www.cast.org/