Radio observations of the formation of the first galaxies and supermassive Black Holes Chris Carilli (NRAO) LANL Cosmology School, July 2010. Concepts and tools in radio astronomy: dust, cool gas, and star formation
Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
Radio observations of the formation of the first galaxies and supermassive Black Holes
Chris Carilli (NRAO)
LANL Cosmology School, July 2010
Millimeter through centimeter astronomy: unveiling the cold, obscured universe
Submm = dust
GN20 SMG z=4.0
30 nW m-2 sr-1
17 nW m-2 sr-1
Over half the light in the Universe is absorbed by dust and reemitted in the FIR
Magic of (sub)mm: distance independent method of studying objects in universe from z=0.8 to 10
LFIR ~ 4e12 x S250(mJy) Lo SFR ~ 1e3 x S250 Mo/yr
FIR = 1.6e12 L_sun
obs = 250 GHz
Atomic fine structure lines
Molecular rotational lines
Wilson et al.
CO image of ‘Antennae’ merging galaxies
[CII] 158um (2P3/2 - 2P1/2)
Fixsen et al.
[OI] 63um [CII]
[OIII] 88um [CII]
Cormier et al.
Powerful suite of existing cm/mm facilites
First glimpses into early galaxy formation
30’ field at 250 GHz rms < 0.3 mJy
Very Large Array
30’ field at 1.4 GHz
rms< 10uJy, 1” res
High res imaging at 20 to 50 GHz
rms < 0.1 mJy, res < 0.2”
Plateau de Bure Interferometer
High res imaging at 90 to 230 GHz
rms < 0.1mJy, res < 0.5”
Apache Point NM
Massive galaxy and SMBH formation at z~6: gas, dust, star formation in quasar hosts
z>4: > 1000 known
z>5: > 100
MB < -26 =>
Lbol> 1014 Lo
MBH > 109 Mo (Eddington / MgII)
SDSS z~6 quasars => tail-end of reionization and first (new) light?
Fan et al 2006
Haaring & Rix
Massive galaxies form most of their stars rapidly at high z
Currently active star formation
Red and dead => Require active star formation at early times
Wang sample 33 z>5.7 quasars
SMC, z<4 quasars
z~6 quasar, GRBs
Stratta et al.
low z SED
TD ~ 1000K
TD = 47 K
Fuel for star formation? Molecular gas: 8 CO detections at z ~ 6 with PdBI, VLA
LFIR vs L’(CO): ‘integrated Kennicutt-Schmidt star formation law’
FIR ~ 1010 Lo/yr => tc~108yr
FIR ~ 1013 Lo/yr => tc~107yr
1” ~ 6kpc
z>4 QSO CO
z<0.2 QSO CO
Low z galaxies
<MBH/Mbulge> ~ 15 higher at z>4 => Black holes form first?
Wang z=6 sample: galaxy mass vs. inclination, assuming all have CO radii ~ J1148+5251
Low z MBH/Mbulge
For z>6 => redshifts to 250GHz => Bure!
PdBI 250GHz 0.25”res
Maiolino, Bertoldi, Knudsen, Iono, Wagg
Anticorrelation of EW(Lya) with submm detections
Summary cm/mm observations of 33 quasars at z~6: only direct probe of the host galaxies
J1425+3254 CO at z = 5.9
Extreme Downsizing: Building a giant elliptical galaxy + SMBH at tuniv< 1Gyr
Li, Hernquist et al.
Dust formation within 1Gyr of Big Bang?
Evolution of MBH – Mbulge relation?
Starburst to quasar sequence: duty cycles and timescales?
Gas resupply (CMA, mergers)?
FIR – EW(Lya) anti-correlation?
White et al. 2003
Loeb & Barkana
z = 6.1
Wyithe et al. 2010
RNZ = 7.3 – 6.5(z-6)
Alternative hypothesis to Stromgren sphere: Quasar Proximity Zones (Bolton & Wyithe)
North American, European, Japanese, and Chilean collaboration to build & operate a large millimeter/submm array at high altitude site (5000m) in northern Chile => order of magnitude, or more, improvement in all areas of (sub)mm astronomy, including resolution, sensitivity, and frequency coverage.
Overall: ALMA+EVLA provide > order magnitude improvement from 1GHz to 1 THz!
100 Mo yr-1 at z=5
cm telescopes: star formation, low order molecular transitions -- total gas mass, dense gas tracers
(sub)mm: dust, high order molecular lines, fine structure lines -- ISM physics, dynamics
J1148+52 at z=6.4 in 24hrs with ALMA
first light image
CO 2-1 in 3 submm galaxies, all in 256 MHz band
EVLA: well sampled velocity field
VLA: ‘pseudo-continuum’ 2x50MHz channels
Bure 2-1 HST
Dense gas history of the Universe: the ‘other half’ of galaxy formation Tracing the fuel for galaxy formation over cosmic time
Millennium Simulations Obreschkow & Rawlingn
Major observational goal for next decade
A Panchromatic view of 1st galaxy formation
100 Mo yr-1 at z=5
cm: Star formation, AGN
(sub)mm Dust, FSL, mol. gas
Near-IR: Stars, ionized gas, AGN
Stacked mm non-detections
Hao et al. 2005
Downes + Solomon
Li, Hernquist et al.