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Session 2 – 8 th October 2007 Amos Haniff School of Management & Languages. Dissertation & Research Methods. Example research projects. How does on-line gambling effect productivity in the workplace? How do advances in telecommunications effect the work-life balance of ….?

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dissertation research methods
Session 2 – 8th October 2007

Amos Haniff

School of Management & Languages

Dissertation & Research Methods

example research projects
Example research projects
  • How does on-line gambling effect productivity in the workplace?
  • How do advances in telecommunications effect the work-life balance of ….?
  • An investigation in to Management fashions and fads
  • How do Edinburgh bus services compare with European bus services in terms of customer needs?
  • An evaluations of cross-culture project teams
example research projects1
Example research projects
  • Underlying racial prejudice with local government
  • The “glass ceiling” in the 21st century
  • Women managers (CEO); does it make a difference?
    • Case studies
  • How effective is Health & Safety communication in …. Industry?
  • Research questions
session 2
Session 2
  • Searching Literature
  • Analysing Literature
  • Referencing Literature
  • Plagiarism
literature review
Literature Review
  • 20-25% dissertation content
  • Involves reading AND appraising other writing in subject area
  • Descriptive AND Analytical
  • Must
    • Know sources of information
    • Understand how library works
    • Collect knowledge on the subject; reading, notes
    • Systematically organise the literature
    • Appraise literature
    • Write review
literature review function
Literature review function
  • To give reasons why the topic is sufficient importance to researched
  • To provide reader with a brief up-to-date account of discussion of literature and relevant issues.
  • To provide a conceptual and theoretical context in which the topic for research can be situated
  • To discuss relevant research carried out on the same topic or similar topics
literature review1
Literature review
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the subject
  • Demonstrate a knowledge of previous research
  • Explain the focus of topic and research study
    • Scholarly manner
  • Justify research method
    • Past research
  • Draw conclusions
    • Past research theories
  • Forms the entire basis of the dissertation
2 the library
2. The Library
  • Peter Sandison
the critical review
The Critical Review
  • Deductive approach
    • Identify theories, ideas to test
  • Inductive
    • Explore data and develop theories
  • Competent knowledge
    • Refine questions & Objectives
    • Identify research possibilities
    • Discover explicit recommendations
    • Avoid repetition
    • Sample current opinion
    • Discover approaches / methodologies
assessing literature
Assessing literature
  • Identify similarities AND contradictions
  • Identify conclusions and reasons
    • Key words: hence, thus, should
    • What do you want me to believe?
    • What is the reason
    • What is the evidence
  • Identify underling assumptions
    • Reasons, conclusions, definitions, meanings
  • Identify recommendations
    • Celebrate!!
being critical
Being Critical
  • Read with some Scepticism
  • Question what you read
  • Refer to assess research by recognised experts in chosen area?
  • Consider and discuss research that supports AND opposes your idea
  • Make judgements regarding value of other research
  • Justify arguments
  • Distinguish between fact and opinion
literature review process
Literature review process

Broad scope of research

Narrow scope of research

Focused research

literature review2
Literature Review
  • 1 chapter
    • Discussing question and objectives
  • 2,3,4 Chapters
    • Each section of the question and objectives
  • Not a listing of previous studies
  • Not a regurgitation of
    • Common text books
    • Lectures notes
  • Structured, Critical Review
literature review process1
Literature Review Process
  • Start at general level
  • Provide an overview of key themes
  • Summarise, compare & contrast research of key writers
  • Narrow down to highlight previous research to own subject
  • Provide detailed account of the findings of previous research
  • Highlight aspects where your research provides fresh insights
  • Lead reader to methodology
conducting literature review
Conducting Literature Review
  • Ensure literature relate clearly to research question and objectives?
  • Ensure most relevant and significant experts / theories are discussed
  • Ensure most relevant and significant literature is discussed
  • Ensure most up to date literature is discussed
  • Ensure you reference
why reference
Why Reference?
  • Evidence of background reading
  • Acknowledge the research of others
  • Avoid accusations of plagiarism
  • Forces you to include complete information
  • Easy to trace the background research used
  • Helps other researchers
  • Web-site guides
    • http://www.lib.flinders.edu.au/services/infolit/nureference.pdf
    • Google “Harvard referencing guide” PDF
terminology
Terminology
  • CITING
    • acknowledging in the text
  • CITATION
    • the passage or words quoted within your text
  • REFERENCE(S)
    • detailed description of works used
    • Alphabetical list of sources / references
  • BIBLIOGRAPHY
    • Additional reading not cited in the Reference section
harvard system of referencing
Harvard system of Referencing
  • Harvard system
    • Author-date system
  • Any one source must appear in two places
  • In the body of the text, when reference is made to third persons ideas.
    • Surname & year (Keane 1999)
    • Surname, Year & page (Keane, 1999:53)
  • At the end of the dissertation (or assignment) where a full description of the reference is made.
    • Name, year, source, publisher
    • Identifying where the reference can be found
harvard system of referencing1
Harvard system of Referencing
  • 2 elements to referencing other peoples work
  • Citing in the body of the text, when reference is made to third persons ideas.
    • Brief acknowledgement
    • Surname & year
  • Referencing at the end of the dissertation (or assignment) where a full description of the reference is made.
    • Name, year, source, publisher
    • Identifying where the reference can be found
quotations
Quotations
  • Less than 30 words: include in the text with single quotation marks.
    • It was Roy Keane (2002) who stated that ‘some of the people who come to Old Trafford can’t spell even football never mind understand it’
  • More than 30 words: the text must be set apart
    • Keane (2002, p.263) is of the opinion that he had the right to express his grievances:

“The article appeared on Thursday morning. It expressed exactly what I felt. I believe people at home has a right to know the truth. The Irish fans are celebrated for the support they give the team”.

citing in the text
Citing in the text
  • Authors surname and year of publication in brackets

Porter (1980) suggests that a firm can gain a competitive advantage through focusing on a particular buyer group

A firm can gain a competitive advantage through focusing on a particular buyer group(Porter 1980)

Book

“A firm can gain a competitive advantage through focusing on a particular buyer group”(Porter 1980, p.123)

(Porter 1980:123)

citing two or three authors
Citing Two or Three Authors
  • Krogh & Roos (1995) suggest that a firm sustains it competitive advantage by resisting erosion by competitors.
  • A firm sustains it competitive advantage if it resists erosion by competitors (Krogh & Roos 1995).
  • A firm sustains it competitive advantage if it resists erosion by competitors (Krogh, Roos & Stienberg 1995).
citing four or more authors
Citing Four or More Authors
  • A firm sustains it competitive advantage if it resists erosion by competitors (Krogh et al 1995).
    • and others
  • Krogh et al (1995) suggests a firm sustains it competitive advantage if it resists erosion by competitors.

No author

  • a firm sustains it competitive advantage if it resists erosion by competitors (Strategic digest 2003)
citing more than one source
Citing More than one source
  • Both Conner (1991) and Spanos & Lioukas (2001) agree that an attractive strategic position is of crucial importance.
  • However, current literature suggests that sustaining a competitive advantage may prove an impossible task (Oliver 2000; Fiol 2001; Williams 1992).
citing an electronic reference
Citing an Electronic reference
  • Know author
    • Author & Date
    • Author & current year
  • No author
    • Title of page
    • A recent study (Strategy on-line 2005) shows that cost is the main factor.
citing a work described in another work
Citing a work described in another work
  • Original idea by one author (primary source) found in work by another author (secondary source)
  • Acknowledge both sources
  • Clarke’s 1992 study (cited in Brown 1995) demonstrates…
  • Brown (1995) in reporting a 1992 study by Clark states…
citing
Citing
  • Citing two or publications with same author and date
  • List work alphabetically
    • Porter (1980a)
    • Porter (1980b)
    • Competitive strategy is about winning (Porter 1980a; Barney 1981b)
  • Citing authors with same surname
  • Use Initials
    • (Porter, P 1980)
    • AC Porter (2001)
personal communications
Personal communications
  • E-mails, letters, telephone conversations, lecture presentations
  • Obtain permission of the person in order to quote them
  • Give the communicators initials and surname
  • Include the type of communication in the text
  • Give the exact date of the communication
    • In an email communication on 4th February 2005, A Jones outlined….
  • Do not include communications is the reference list
the reference list
The Reference List
  • The Reference list gives the FULL reference
  • Alphabetical list at the end of your work
  • Authors with several publications must be listed in Chronological order, starting with earliest date.
  • Authors with multiple publications in the same year
    • Smith, A. C. (2005a)
    • Smith, A. C. (2005b)
  • The most important thing to remember is to keep your reference list consistent
book references
Book references
  • Author(s) / Editor(s) / Organisation
  • Year in brackets
  • Title and Subtitle (as it appears on the title page).
    • In italics or underlined
    • Normally only first word in capitals (normal grammar applies)
  • Series/Volume no. (if present).
  • Edition. (2nd edn, 3rd edn)
  • Publisher.
  • Place of publication
referencing a thesis or dissertation
Referencing a Thesis or dissertation
  • Bloodgood , J. B. (1997) Sustaining competitive advantage: The role of tacit knowledge in a resource-Based perspective. PhD Thesis. University of Carolina. USA
journal references
Journal References
  • Author(s) of article
  • Year in brackets
  • Article title.
  • Journal title (In Italics),
  • Volume, Part, Issue, Month/Season
  • Page numbers.
journal references1
Journal References
  • Barney, J. B., (1991) Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Journal of Management. Vol.17, No.1, pp.99-120
  • Mahoney, J. T., & Pandian, R., (1992) The Resource-Based View within the conversation of strategic management. Strategic Management Journal. Vol.13, pp.368-380
  • Harrison, J. S., Hitt, M. A., Hoskisson, R. E., & Ireland, R.D. (1991) Synergies and Post-Acquisition Performance: Differences versus Similarities in Resource Allocations. Journal of Management. Vol.17, No.1, pp.173-190
working papers
Working papers
  • O’Farrell, P. N., Hitchens, D. M., & Moffat, L. A., (1991) The competitive advantage of business service firms: A matched pair analysis of the relationship between generic strategy and performance. Working Paper No.1. Department of Economics, Queens University, Belfast.
conference papers
Conference Papers
  • Haniff A. P., & Kaka A. P., (2005) A framework for development of a knowledge database for use within the construction industry. Paper presented at the International Conference of Project Management. Salford University. 13th-15th June 2005.
  • Haniff A. P., & Kaka A. P., (2005) A framework for development of a knowledge database for use within the construction industry. Proceedings of the International Conference of Project Management. Salford University press. United Kingdom.
newspaper articles
Newspaper articles
  • Newspaper article where author known
  • Jonquieres, G.D., (1992), “Decline in Cross-Border Deals”, Financial Times, January 10, Section II, p. 17.
  • Newspaper article where author unknown
  • Economist, (1992a), “Mad Mergers in Europe”, February 1, p. 18.
  • Economist, (1992b), “Perrier Bottled”, March 21, p. 107.
internet sources
Internet sources
  • Author(s) / Editor(s) if known
  • Year (in brackets)
  • Title (Italics)
  • [Internet].
  • Edition
  • Place of publication,
  • Publisher’s name (if available).
  • Available from:
  • [Date accessed].
internet sources1
Internet sources

Rowett, S. (1998) Higher Education for capability: autonomous learning for life and work [Internet]. Higher Education for Capability. Available from: [Accessed 8 August 2006].

The Architecture Foundation. (1999) Architecture Foundation Online [Internet]. Available from: [Accessed 17 August 2006].

internet sources2
Internet sources
  • Reuters, (1996), “EC says no to ‘gentleman’s agreement’ with UEFA over Bosman”, Internet Soccer Features. http://www.nando.net/newsroom/sports/oht/1996/oth/soc/feat/archive/020196/soc/51483.html. Last accessed 10th November 2005
  • Show date of last accesses.
official reports
Official reports
  • Official Documents, e.g., Accounting Standards
  • ABS, (1994), FRS 5: Reporting the Substance of Transactions, Accounting Standards Board.
  • In the text you give (ASB, 1994) as the reference.
tv video
TV & Video
  • Commercial videos:

Yol (1982) Directed by Yilmaz Guney. London, Artificial Eye [video:VHS].

  • Television programmes and off-air recordings:

World in Action (1995) All work and no play. London, ITV, 21st January [DVD].

sound recordings
Sound recordings

Mozart, W.A., Symphony no. 38 in D major, Vienna Philharmonic. Polydor. [sound recording:compact disk].

Porter, C., (1966) Mack the Knife. Performed by Robbie Willaims 2002, Swing when you’re winning. Chyrstal.[sound recording:compact disk].

Children language and literature. (1982) Milton Keynes, Open University Press [sound recording:audiocassette].

diagrams in the text
Diagrams in the text

Figure 21: Population of developing countries

Source: Smith, J.P. (1999) Developing countries. Joe Press. NY. pp.53

endnote
Endnote
  • Referencing System
  • PC Caledonia
plagiarism
Plagiarism

“Plagiarism involves the act of taking the ideas, writings or inventions of another person and using these as if they were one’s own, whether intentionally or not.”

  • Quoting or paraphrasing material without citing the source of that material..
  • Quoting a source without using quotation marks
  • Copying or using others work without permission
  • Citing sources not used.
  • Submitting the same work for different classes
plagiarism1
Plagiarism
  • “Direct quotes should only be used when necessary” (Haniff 2005)
  • Haniff (2005) suggests that the unnecessary use of direct quotes should be avoided.
  • It is recommended that the overuse of direct quotes hinders the flow of a literature review (Haniff 2005)
  • Check guidelines
  • Use Harvard referencing
next week
Next week
  • Task
    • Sketch an outline “mind map” on acetate of lit review
    • Questions
    • Objectives
  • Research strategy
  • Data collection methods
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