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Steps Toward the HST. NASM 18 November 2009. C. R. O’Dell Vanderbilt University- Distinguished Research Professor of Physics and Astronomy Rice University -Andrew Hayes Buchanan Professor of Astrophysics-Emeritus. Steps Toward the HST.

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steps toward the hst nasm 18 november 2009

Steps Toward the HST.NASM18 November 2009

C. R. O’Dell

Vanderbilt University-DistinguishedResearch Professor of Physics and Astronomy

Rice University-Andrew Hayes Buchanan Professor of Astrophysics-Emeritus

steps toward the hst
Steps Toward the HST.
  • 1971-1972 Feasibility Studies (HQ Group, GSFC, MSFC, Contractors).
steps toward the hst1
Steps Toward the HST.
  • 1971-1972 Feasibility Studies (HQ Group, GSFC, MSFC, Contractors).
  • 1973-1977 Preliminary Design (SWG,MSFC,GSFC,Contractors).
1973 a broad scientific base is established
1973-A broad Scientific Base is established.
  • I came on-board in September, 1972.
  • In December NASA issued an AO for creation of Instrument Definition Teams, the leaders plus a few generalists would form a Science Working Group.
  • January, 1973 a dog-and-pony show was presented at CalTech, Chicago, and Harvard advertising the AO.
slide8
1974
  • However, we needed an even broader constituency.
  • This was done in part by having special sessions at the American Astronomical Society meetings.
  • The watershed event was the January 30 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics meeting.
steps toward the hst2
Steps Toward the HST.
  • 1971-1972 Feasibility Studies (HQ Group, GSFC, MSFC, Contractors).
  • 1973-1977 Preliminary Design (SWG,MSFC,GSFC,Contractors).
  • 1978-1990 Design and Development (New SWG, MSFC,GSFC,Lockheed-Martin,Perkin-Elmer, SI Contractors).
schedule history
Schedule History

From Richard Tresch Fienberg’s April 1990 Sky&Tel article.

1971 72 feasibility studies and the roman group
1971-72 Feasibility Studies and the Roman Group.
  • One of the first things NASA did was to establish if the project was feasible (a Phase-A Study).
  • In parallel with studies by multiple contractors a group of scientists was convened at NASA HQ by Nancy G.Roman to provide feedback.
1975 seeking funding for actual construction phase c d
1975-Seeking Funding for Actual Construction (Phase C/D)
  • The escalating identified costs caused many in the Congress to balk. Several times the program was considered dead.
  • NASA negotiates its budgets internally, then with the White House, and then the Congress approves-modifies-rejects the submitted presidential budget.
  • NASA employees must support the submitted budget and DO NOT make end-runs to Capitol Hill.
convincing the congress
Convincing the Congress
  • Non-NASA scientists COULD go directly to the key members of the House and Senate.
  • This was done with wisdom and vigor by Lyman Spitzer and John Bahcall.
  • The truth of their arguments won the day, which may not have been the case without them.
  • In the early years these efforts kept HST alive as congress stretched out the Phase B activities.
  • In the final years, the lobbying efforts resulted in the HST being included in the FY1978 budget almost in spite of NASA.
1976 european participation
1976-European Participation
  • The first major joint NASA-ESA venture was the IUE (launched in 1978).
  • Negotiations with the ESA started in Phase B as soon as we started having cost problems.
  • The areas of participation were finally narrowed down to the Solar Arrays and a Scientific Instrument (the FOC).
  • Although probably financially and scientifically attractive, the primary determinant was the will of the Congress.
  • A NASA-ESA agreement was reached in late 1976.
how was the science data to be managed
How was the Science Data to be managed?
  • Traditionally astronomer’s data didn’t transport well (mostly photographic).
  • NASA’s experience was similar, with the instrument teams exclusively using the results from the spacecraft.
  • Clearly, these were NOT the ways to do the HST.
data rights and distribution
Data Rights and Distribution
  • Very early we established that the GTO’s were to have a rapidly decreasing reward in use of the SI’s.
  • This meant that GO’s would be the primary users of the SI’s.
  • It was clear that there had to be a central facility(ies) for routine processing and archiving the data.
how was the science to be managed
How was the Science to be Managed?
  • Astronomers were used to the national facilities being run by consortia of universities.
  • KPNO+CTIO-AURA, NRAO-AUI.
  • The idea of the STScI was first advocated by the ad hoc Ramsey Committee in 1965, before HST was started, but then forgotten.
  • Within the HST project, an STScI was first advocated by the Project Scientist in 1972, eventually this idea was embraced by the Phase B SWG.
  • A National Academy of Science study in July, 1976 endorsed the concept and NASA reluctantly accepted it.
the si s selected
The SI’s Selected.
  • The Wide Field/Planetary Camera; PI, Jim Westphal of CalTech.
  • The Faint Object Spectrograph; PI, Richard Harms of UC San Diego.
  • The Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph; PI, Jack Brandt (Sally Heap).
  • The High Speed Photometer; PI, Bob Bless of the University of Wisconsin.
  • The Faint Object Camera; ESA (preselected) PI Duccio Macchetto & Henk van de Hulst.
  • Astrometry with the FGS; Leader,BillJeffereys
the phase c d swg
The Phase C/D SWG.
  • NASA-Project Scientist (O’Dell, Brown, Boggess),and Program Scientist Ed Weiler.
  • SI Team Leaders (seven in all, John Trauger of JPL added later).
  • Telescope Scientists: Dan Schroeder -Beloit College & Bill Fastie-JHU)
  • At Large Members: John Caldwell-Toronto,Malcolm Longair-Edinburgh,Ed Groth-Princeton(Physics), David Lambert-Texas,John Bahcall, and Riccardo Giacconi (added).
spherical aberration
Spherical Aberration
  • This was discovered as the first images were made.
  • The cause was a misaligned optical device used to measure the shape of the primary mirror.
  • This device was intended to make the mirror appear to be flat when it was of the right shape.
contributing factors
Contributing Factors
  • The primary mirror was not considered the most demanding part of the HST.
  • The program was very cost-constrained and the method of testing was considered straightforward.
  • Management was concentrating on a redesign of the FGS, which WAS new.
  • The resident MSFC QA person had not been changed because of manpower constraints.
  • The report on the anomaly with the alignment was not forwarded to MSFC.
reading material
Reading Material
  • “The Space Telescope” by Robert W. Smith. Cambridge University Press, 1989(pre-launch) & 1993(post-launch).
  • “The Orion Nebula” by C. Robert O’Dell, Harvard University Press, 2003 (Chapter 10).
  • “Alice and the Space Telescope” by Malcolm Longair, JHU Press, 1989.