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Marketing . An Introduction. FYI…. Exam Tuesday – library 213C Project Single vs. double Due Monday night via e-mail. What is marketing?. Marketing Defined. Why marketing in recreation?. Which sector relies on marketing the most? Least? How were programs marketed in internships?

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marketing

Marketing

An Introduction

slide2
FYI…
  • Exam
  • Tuesday – library 213C
  • Project
    • Single vs. double
    • Due Monday night via e-mail
why marketing in recreation
Why marketing in recreation?
  • Which sector relies on marketing the most? Least?
  • How were programs marketed in internships?
  • Marketing is a function of all staff & not just marketing staff
how would you describe these products in promo materials
How would you describe these products in promo materials??
  • Youth volleyball league
  • ISU Homecoming events
  • New Marriot Hotel in Uptown Normal
  • Gold’s Gym Membership
  • Las Vegas
  • Season tickets to Prairie Thunder Hockey
slide8

Inputs

Programs

Outputs

Outcomes

Resources dedicated to the programs and services

Financial

Human

Technological

Physical

Programs, products & services offered

Seniors in organized golf activity

Creative art experience for parent & child

City beautification

Volume of work produced or the number of people served

Number of senior golf leagues, # of sr. golfers served

# of Parent/child art classes offered; # of art projects done together

# of flowers planted

Benefits received from participation in the program or service or from buying the product

Social interaction with other seniors; improved BMI or health

New appreciation for each other’s interests; exposure to different mediums; increased art appreciation

Decreased vandalism in landscaped areas; increased property values

Performance Outcome Model

outcomes focus
Outcomes Focus
  • How do people see us?...value parks & recreation as a profession or major?
think of your favorite recreation activity not sleep pass the grandma test

Think of your favorite recreation activity…not sleep & pass the grandma test!

Why do you like it?

What characteristics of it would convince me to participate?

types of outcomes
Personal/Individual

Wellness

Relaxation

Social

Reduce loneliness

Strong families

Make friends

Economic

Preventative health

Reduce cost of vandalism

Environmental

Conservation

Environmental rehabilitation

Types of Outcomes

Your program???

markets segmentation

Markets &Segmentation

What is a market?

markets
Markets
  • Set of actual and potential buyers
  • Potential markets for…?????
    • Textbooks
    • Sporting event tickets
    • Hiking boots
    • Nursing homes
    • Jaguars

Is everyone a potential market???

mass marketing
Mass Marketing
  • Seller mass produces, mass distributes & mass promotes one product to all buyers
    • Examples???
  • Weaknesses of mass marketing for non-mass products
market segmentation
Market Segmentation
  • Divides a heterogeneous group into smaller homogenous segments
  • Groups have similar wants & responses
  • Basic to all marketing efforts
target marketing
Target Marketing
  • Seller identifies market segments, selects 1 & develops products and marketing mixes for them
    • Marketing Mix – product, price, place, promotion (4 P’s)
    • Better than mass marketing. Why?
    • Segmentation criteria (see text)
slide18
FYI…
  • Exam 1 ?’s
  • Review marketing assignment
    • Sect 4 due 11/8
    • Third person
    • Headers
how would you segment a market

How would you segment a market?

Bases of Segmentation

4 bases of segmentation
4 Bases of Segmentation
  • Demographics
  • Psychographics
  • Product usage
  • Product benefits
demographics
Demographics
  • Geography
    • Proximity
      • Closeness associated with involvement
        • Closer to the activity, the higher the participation
        • Ie. Campus recreation, Thai club…
demographics1
Demographics
  • Geography
    • Geoclusters
      • Certain areas (ie. zip codes) more prone to respond
      • Areas with a lot of members
      • Pockets of participants
      • See IL map….
slide24

Are there certain geoclusters that are more likely to respond to US Cellular Coliseum?

  • Examples of the size of the circle changing?
  • Athletics: IWU, ISU, U of I
  • Amusement park
  • Local park
demographics2
Demographics
  • Income
    • Determines lifestyle
    • Influences advertising market for certain products
      • Golf vs. football
    • Where would you advertise these products?
      • Ralph Lauren
      • REI
demographics3
Demographics
  • Age
    • One of the most effective variables
      • Consumer needs very predictable at dif ages
      • Age & stage of lifecycle similar
        • Income, education, family lifecycle
    • Different cohorts have different needs & interests
    • How would you describe the Senior Market?
    • Are they a viable market for sport & recreation?
      • Why, why not?
demographics4
Demographics
  • Age
    • Mature Market – 55+
      • Stereotyped as inactive & thrifty – untrue!
      • Living longer & more active
      • 28% are over 50+….
        • Per capita income is 26% higher than national average
        • Spends 1+ trillion per year on goods & services
        • Buy 41% of new cars; 25% of all toys
        • 80% of the luxury travel market…their top leisure activity
      • Senior golf tour, discounts…
slide31

National Parks Senior Annual Pass - $80/year; $10 for people 65+ or people with disabilities…for the life of the individual.

Bloomington, IN Twin Lakes Recreation Center

demographics5
Demographics
  • Age
    • Youth Market
    • How would you describe the Youth Market?
    • Are they a viable market for sport & recreation? Why, why not?
demographics6
Demographics
  • Age
    • Youth Market
      • Influence purchase of $239 billion per year
        • Tweens - Candy, toys & games
        • Teens – clothing & apparel
      • Influence 20% of all purchases in US
      • Choose teams, activities & brands earlier
      • Users of the future…Pepsi & Coke
demographics7
Demographics
  • Age
    • Example – youth as a NASCAR target
      • Hook them young & white collar
      • Remove tobacco & move to mainstream sponsors
      • Add kid friendly items
demographics8
Demographics
  • Gender
    • Differences between genders in terms of consumption???
    • Changes in last 10-20 years in genders
    • What is the female influence on the sport & rec market?
demographics9
Demographics
  • Gender
    • Gender impact on products
        • Bike frames & seats
        • Smaller golf clubs, tennis racquets, basketballs
        • Ponytail helmets
        • Hiking apparel designed for both genders
        • Business hotels – decorations more female friendly …appealing to men as well
        • Fitness classes targeting men
        • Separate classes for the non-stereotypical activity
          • Ceramics for men, woodworking for women
demographics10
Demographics
  • Gender
    • Female buying power…she-conomy
      • $2 trillion – women control
      • $1 trillion - women earn
      • Sign 80% of all checks
      • 94% of home furnishing decisions
      • Initiate 80% of home improvement projects
      • Purchase 85% of all consumer products
slide39

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demographics11
Demographics
  • Race
    • A group of people who share a genetic make-up which results in biological characteristics that can be used to distinguish 1 group from another
  • Ethnicity
    • Commonalities passed down through history & tradition
    • Historical link, shared religious beliefs, linguistic commonalities, common morals
    • Shared culture
demographics12
Demographics
  • Race & Ethnicity
    • Can’t divide based on race/ethnicity alone
    • Don’t stereotype consumption – do research
    • Examples of advertising to different ethnic/racial groups?....
slide43

Buying power: total post-tax, personal income of residents that is available to spend on goods and services

Growth in African American buying power due to entrepreneurship

demographics13
Demographics
  • Sexual Orientation
    • LGBT markets are “untapped goldmines”
    • Higher income & education
      • Median household income $70,000, 30% over $100,000
        • $43,318 for heterosexual households
      • 37% have a college degree, 20% have a graduate degree
        • Vs. 28% & 9.4%
      • 91% buy products supporting gay causes
demographics14
Demographics
  • Sexual Orientation
    • More discretionary time & money…$500 billion
    • WNBA Marketing Director fired for disregarding lesbian target market
    • Travel & tourism capitalizing on this market
      • Key West, Philadelphia, Toronto
      • Cruises
      • Resorts
      • Disney Gay Days…
slide48

LGBT Geoclusters

    • Palm Springs, CA 92264
    • Provincetown, MA 02657
    • Palm Springs, CA 92262
    • Fort Lauderdale, FL 33305
    • West Hollywood, CA 90069
    • San Francisco, CA 94131
    • Dallas, TX 75219
    • Rehoboth, DE 19971
    • Detroit, MI 48069
    • Honorable mention
      • 60657 Chicago, IL (Wrigley, Lincoln Park)
      • 60640 Chicago, IL (Randolph & Wacker Dr.)
demographics psychographics product usage product benefits
Demographics

Psychographics

Product Usage

Product Benefits

psychographics
Psychographics
  • Lifestyle characteristics
    • Values, attitudes, interests, opinions, beliefs
lifestyle characteristics
Lifestyle characteristics

How would we use these??

psychographics1
Psychographics
  • How do we use these?
    • Meijer’s coupons
    • Shows at Braden
    • Club membership – campus, fitness
    • Political affiliation
    • Donations
    • Activities – biking, running
    • Professional associations
demographics psychographics product usage product benefits1
Demographics

Psychographics

Product Usage

Product Benefits

product use
Product Use
  • Use rates - frequency
    • Non-user, first time user, potential user, regular user
      • Hilton Honors program, frequent flyer
    • Maintain opportunities for high, medium, low consumption
      • Can’t focus just on members or season ticket holders
      • Have opportunities for occasional users
      • Reserved court time vs. drop-in; single season tickets
    • Low level users may increase use
product use1
Product Use
  • Level of ability
    • Softball classes
    • Basketball – full court, half court, fast break/non fast break
    • Runners – 5K, 10K, half, full marathon, triathlon
  • Level of specialization
    • Beginner vs. advanced
demographics psychographics product usage product benefits2
Demographics

Psychographics Product Usage

Product Benefits

product benefits segmentation
Product Benefits Segmentation
  • Divide by desired benefits
  • What do the following want from a tennis shoe?
    • Marathon runner
    • Avid walker
    • Aerobics
target market strategies1
Target Market Strategies
  • Undifferentiated
  • Differentiated
  • Concentrated
undifferentiated market
Undifferentiated Market
  • Ignores market segment differences
  • Focuses on what is common w/i the mkt rather than differences
  • Public agencies

Segment 1

Segment 2

Segment 3

Segment 4

1 overall marketing plan

differentiated market
Differentiated Market
  • Target several segments with separate mixes
  • Hilton Hotels
    • Doubletree
    • Hampton Inn
    • Conrad Hotels & Resorts
    • Hilton Garden Inn

Segment 1

Segment 2

Segment 3

Segment 4

4 specific marketing plans – 1 per segment

concentrated market
Concentrated Market
  • Go after large share of 1-2 markets
  • Used by smaller co. w/ limited resources
  • Put large portion of resources into few markets
  • High risk - segment can change

Segment 1

Segment 2

Segment 3

Segment 4

1 specific marketing plan

selecting target segments
Selecting Target Segments

Undifferentiated

Differentiated

Concentrated

Segment 1

Segment 1

Segment 1

Segment 2

Segment 2

Segment 2

Segment 3

Segment 3

Segment 3

Segment 4

Segment 4

Segment 4

1 overall marketing plan

4 specific marketing plans – 1 per segment

1 specific marketing plan

slide69
You identify 1 market segment you want to target & develop a marketing plan for it you are using what segmentation approach?
  • Differentiated
  • Undifferentiated
  • Concentrated
  • Commercial
in order to determine you have a viable market segment you would measure it based on what
In order to determine you have a viable market segment you would measure it based on what?
  • Accessibility
  • Sustainability
  • Responsiveness
  • All of the above
slide71
____ are groups of people who are likely to be similar in terms of demographics. They are often identified by zip codes.
  • Critical trade area
  • Psychographics
  • Geoclusters
  • Community
your project
Your project
  • Sect 4 due 11/11
  • To date
    • Sect 4 A, B, & D
    • Sect C – lifecycle
  • Tips
    • 3rd person
    • Single space
    • Heads
service vs product
Service vs. Product
  • Intangibility
  • Inseparability
    • Can’t be separated from creator or provider
    • Produced & consumed at the same time
    • Consumed at production site
service vs product1
Service vs. Product
  • Heterogeneity/ Inconsistency
    • Can’t standardize a service
    • Weather, instructor, location, time of day
    • Can’t undergo quality inspection prior to delivery
service vs product2
Service vs. Product
  • Perishability
    • Services highly perishable
    • Can’t be inventoried or stored
    • Campsite not used is a lost experience forever
  • Fluctuating demand
    • Ski resorts, outdoor pools, golf
    • Synchromarketing
      • Trying to smooth irregular demand fluctuations
market segmentation criteria
Market Segmentation Criteria
  • Sustainable
  • Identifiable
  • Accessibility
  • Responsive
  • Perceived Need
market segmentation criteria1
Market Segmentation Criteria
  • Sustainable
    • Too few – not worthwhile
    • Too many – like mass marketing
    • Purchasing power
    • Is it worth considering given limited resources
      • University majors – CAST, KNR, RPA, TR
      • Cricket fields
market segmentation criteria2
Market Segmentation Criteria
  • Identifiable
    • Can you measure the size of the market?
    • Can you distinguish them from the general population?
    • Basic demographics…measurable
market segmentation criteria3
Market Segmentation Criteria
  • Accessible / Reachable
    • Can they be found
      • Obese children
      • HS Drop outs
      • Isolated seniors
    • Can they be communicated with?
      • Above groups
      • Children / adults who don’t speak English
market segmentation criteria4
Market Segmentation Criteria
  • Responsive
    • Ability of the programs to meet needs of the segment
    • Responsiveness of the segment to marketing initiatives
      • Use segmentation approach that gets us to a responsive segment
  • Perceived Need
    • May be excluded based on other criteria
    • Need exists for services
      • Low income, obese children, youth at risk
slide81
When the seller mass produces, mass distributes & mass promotes one product to all buyers this is called…
  • Target marketing
  • Market segmentation
  • Mass marketing
  • Marketing mix
when you take a large community and break it into smaller homogenous sections you are doing what
When you take a large community and break it into smaller homogenous sections you are doing what?
  • Mass marketing
  • Segmenting the market
  • Targeting the market
  • Manipulating the marketing mix