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Marketing . An Introduction. FYI…. Exam Tuesday – library 213C Project Single vs. double Due Monday night via e-mail. What is marketing?. Marketing Defined. Why marketing in recreation?. Which sector relies on marketing the most? Least? How were programs marketed in internships?

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An Introduction

  • Exam
  • Tuesday – library 213C
  • Project
    • Single vs. double
    • Due Monday night via e-mail
why marketing in recreation
Why marketing in recreation?
  • Which sector relies on marketing the most? Least?
  • How were programs marketed in internships?
  • Marketing is a function of all staff & not just marketing staff
how would you describe these products in promo materials
How would you describe these products in promo materials??
  • Youth volleyball league
  • ISU Homecoming events
  • New Marriot Hotel in Uptown Normal
  • Gold’s Gym Membership
  • Las Vegas
  • Season tickets to Prairie Thunder Hockey





Resources dedicated to the programs and services





Programs, products & services offered

Seniors in organized golf activity

Creative art experience for parent & child

City beautification

Volume of work produced or the number of people served

Number of senior golf leagues, # of sr. golfers served

# of Parent/child art classes offered; # of art projects done together

# of flowers planted

Benefits received from participation in the program or service or from buying the product

Social interaction with other seniors; improved BMI or health

New appreciation for each other’s interests; exposure to different mediums; increased art appreciation

Decreased vandalism in landscaped areas; increased property values

Performance Outcome Model

outcomes focus
Outcomes Focus
  • How do people see us?...value parks & recreation as a profession or major?
think of your favorite recreation activity not sleep pass the grandma test

Think of your favorite recreation activity…not sleep & pass the grandma test!

Why do you like it?

What characteristics of it would convince me to participate?

types of outcomes




Reduce loneliness

Strong families

Make friends


Preventative health

Reduce cost of vandalism



Environmental rehabilitation

Types of Outcomes

Your program???

markets segmentation

Markets &Segmentation

What is a market?

  • Set of actual and potential buyers
  • Potential markets for…?????
    • Textbooks
    • Sporting event tickets
    • Hiking boots
    • Nursing homes
    • Jaguars

Is everyone a potential market???

mass marketing
Mass Marketing
  • Seller mass produces, mass distributes & mass promotes one product to all buyers
    • Examples???
  • Weaknesses of mass marketing for non-mass products
market segmentation
Market Segmentation
  • Divides a heterogeneous group into smaller homogenous segments
  • Groups have similar wants & responses
  • Basic to all marketing efforts
target marketing
Target Marketing
  • Seller identifies market segments, selects 1 & develops products and marketing mixes for them
    • Marketing Mix – product, price, place, promotion (4 P’s)
    • Better than mass marketing. Why?
    • Segmentation criteria (see text)
  • Exam 1 ?’s
  • Review marketing assignment
    • Sect 4 due 11/8
    • Third person
    • Headers
how would you segment a market

How would you segment a market?

Bases of Segmentation

4 bases of segmentation
4 Bases of Segmentation
  • Demographics
  • Psychographics
  • Product usage
  • Product benefits
  • Geography
    • Proximity
      • Closeness associated with involvement
        • Closer to the activity, the higher the participation
        • Ie. Campus recreation, Thai club…
  • Geography
    • Geoclusters
      • Certain areas (ie. zip codes) more prone to respond
      • Areas with a lot of members
      • Pockets of participants
      • See IL map….

Are there certain geoclusters that are more likely to respond to US Cellular Coliseum?

  • Examples of the size of the circle changing?
  • Athletics: IWU, ISU, U of I
  • Amusement park
  • Local park
  • Income
    • Determines lifestyle
    • Influences advertising market for certain products
      • Golf vs. football
    • Where would you advertise these products?
      • Ralph Lauren
      • REI
  • Age
    • One of the most effective variables
      • Consumer needs very predictable at dif ages
      • Age & stage of lifecycle similar
        • Income, education, family lifecycle
    • Different cohorts have different needs & interests
    • How would you describe the Senior Market?
    • Are they a viable market for sport & recreation?
      • Why, why not?
  • Age
    • Mature Market – 55+
      • Stereotyped as inactive & thrifty – untrue!
      • Living longer & more active
      • 28% are over 50+….
        • Per capita income is 26% higher than national average
        • Spends 1+ trillion per year on goods & services
        • Buy 41% of new cars; 25% of all toys
        • 80% of the luxury travel market…their top leisure activity
      • Senior golf tour, discounts…

National Parks Senior Annual Pass - $80/year; $10 for people 65+ or people with disabilities…for the life of the individual.

Bloomington, IN Twin Lakes Recreation Center

  • Age
    • Youth Market
    • How would you describe the Youth Market?
    • Are they a viable market for sport & recreation? Why, why not?
  • Age
    • Youth Market
      • Influence purchase of $239 billion per year
        • Tweens - Candy, toys & games
        • Teens – clothing & apparel
      • Influence 20% of all purchases in US
      • Choose teams, activities & brands earlier
      • Users of the future…Pepsi & Coke
  • Age
    • Example – youth as a NASCAR target
      • Hook them young & white collar
      • Remove tobacco & move to mainstream sponsors
      • Add kid friendly items
  • Gender
    • Differences between genders in terms of consumption???
    • Changes in last 10-20 years in genders
    • What is the female influence on the sport & rec market?
  • Gender
    • Gender impact on products
        • Bike frames & seats
        • Smaller golf clubs, tennis racquets, basketballs
        • Ponytail helmets
        • Hiking apparel designed for both genders
        • Business hotels – decorations more female friendly …appealing to men as well
        • Fitness classes targeting men
        • Separate classes for the non-stereotypical activity
          • Ceramics for men, woodworking for women
  • Gender
    • Female buying power…she-conomy
      • $2 trillion – women control
      • $1 trillion - women earn
      • Sign 80% of all checks
      • 94% of home furnishing decisions
      • Initiate 80% of home improvement projects
      • Purchase 85% of all consumer products

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  • Race
    • A group of people who share a genetic make-up which results in biological characteristics that can be used to distinguish 1 group from another
  • Ethnicity
    • Commonalities passed down through history & tradition
    • Historical link, shared religious beliefs, linguistic commonalities, common morals
    • Shared culture
  • Race & Ethnicity
    • Can’t divide based on race/ethnicity alone
    • Don’t stereotype consumption – do research
    • Examples of advertising to different ethnic/racial groups?....

Buying power: total post-tax, personal income of residents that is available to spend on goods and services

Growth in African American buying power due to entrepreneurship

  • Sexual Orientation
    • LGBT markets are “untapped goldmines”
    • Higher income & education
      • Median household income $70,000, 30% over $100,000
        • $43,318 for heterosexual households
      • 37% have a college degree, 20% have a graduate degree
        • Vs. 28% & 9.4%
      • 91% buy products supporting gay causes
  • Sexual Orientation
    • More discretionary time & money…$500 billion
    • WNBA Marketing Director fired for disregarding lesbian target market
    • Travel & tourism capitalizing on this market
      • Key West, Philadelphia, Toronto
      • Cruises
      • Resorts
      • Disney Gay Days…

LGBT Geoclusters

    • Palm Springs, CA 92264
    • Provincetown, MA 02657
    • Palm Springs, CA 92262
    • Fort Lauderdale, FL 33305
    • West Hollywood, CA 90069
    • San Francisco, CA 94131
    • Dallas, TX 75219
    • Rehoboth, DE 19971
    • Detroit, MI 48069
    • Honorable mention
      • 60657 Chicago, IL (Wrigley, Lincoln Park)
      • 60640 Chicago, IL (Randolph & Wacker Dr.)
demographics psychographics product usage product benefits


Product Usage

Product Benefits

  • Lifestyle characteristics
    • Values, attitudes, interests, opinions, beliefs
lifestyle characteristics
Lifestyle characteristics

How would we use these??

  • How do we use these?
    • Meijer’s coupons
    • Shows at Braden
    • Club membership – campus, fitness
    • Political affiliation
    • Donations
    • Activities – biking, running
    • Professional associations
demographics psychographics product usage product benefits1


Product Usage

Product Benefits

product use
Product Use
  • Use rates - frequency
    • Non-user, first time user, potential user, regular user
      • Hilton Honors program, frequent flyer
    • Maintain opportunities for high, medium, low consumption
      • Can’t focus just on members or season ticket holders
      • Have opportunities for occasional users
      • Reserved court time vs. drop-in; single season tickets
    • Low level users may increase use
product use1
Product Use
  • Level of ability
    • Softball classes
    • Basketball – full court, half court, fast break/non fast break
    • Runners – 5K, 10K, half, full marathon, triathlon
  • Level of specialization
    • Beginner vs. advanced
demographics psychographics product usage product benefits2

Psychographics Product Usage

Product Benefits

product benefits segmentation
Product Benefits Segmentation
  • Divide by desired benefits
  • What do the following want from a tennis shoe?
    • Marathon runner
    • Avid walker
    • Aerobics
target market strategies1
Target Market Strategies
  • Undifferentiated
  • Differentiated
  • Concentrated
undifferentiated market
Undifferentiated Market
  • Ignores market segment differences
  • Focuses on what is common w/i the mkt rather than differences
  • Public agencies

Segment 1

Segment 2

Segment 3

Segment 4

1 overall marketing plan

differentiated market
Differentiated Market
  • Target several segments with separate mixes
  • Hilton Hotels
    • Doubletree
    • Hampton Inn
    • Conrad Hotels & Resorts
    • Hilton Garden Inn

Segment 1

Segment 2

Segment 3

Segment 4

4 specific marketing plans – 1 per segment

concentrated market
Concentrated Market
  • Go after large share of 1-2 markets
  • Used by smaller co. w/ limited resources
  • Put large portion of resources into few markets
  • High risk - segment can change

Segment 1

Segment 2

Segment 3

Segment 4

1 specific marketing plan

selecting target segments
Selecting Target Segments




Segment 1

Segment 1

Segment 1

Segment 2

Segment 2

Segment 2

Segment 3

Segment 3

Segment 3

Segment 4

Segment 4

Segment 4

1 overall marketing plan

4 specific marketing plans – 1 per segment

1 specific marketing plan

You identify 1 market segment you want to target & develop a marketing plan for it you are using what segmentation approach?
  • Differentiated
  • Undifferentiated
  • Concentrated
  • Commercial
in order to determine you have a viable market segment you would measure it based on what
In order to determine you have a viable market segment you would measure it based on what?
  • Accessibility
  • Sustainability
  • Responsiveness
  • All of the above
____ are groups of people who are likely to be similar in terms of demographics. They are often identified by zip codes.
  • Critical trade area
  • Psychographics
  • Geoclusters
  • Community
your project
Your project
  • Sect 4 due 11/11
  • To date
    • Sect 4 A, B, & D
    • Sect C – lifecycle
  • Tips
    • 3rd person
    • Single space
    • Heads
service vs product
Service vs. Product
  • Intangibility
  • Inseparability
    • Can’t be separated from creator or provider
    • Produced & consumed at the same time
    • Consumed at production site
service vs product1
Service vs. Product
  • Heterogeneity/ Inconsistency
    • Can’t standardize a service
    • Weather, instructor, location, time of day
    • Can’t undergo quality inspection prior to delivery
service vs product2
Service vs. Product
  • Perishability
    • Services highly perishable
    • Can’t be inventoried or stored
    • Campsite not used is a lost experience forever
  • Fluctuating demand
    • Ski resorts, outdoor pools, golf
    • Synchromarketing
      • Trying to smooth irregular demand fluctuations
market segmentation criteria
Market Segmentation Criteria
  • Sustainable
  • Identifiable
  • Accessibility
  • Responsive
  • Perceived Need
market segmentation criteria1
Market Segmentation Criteria
  • Sustainable
    • Too few – not worthwhile
    • Too many – like mass marketing
    • Purchasing power
    • Is it worth considering given limited resources
      • University majors – CAST, KNR, RPA, TR
      • Cricket fields
market segmentation criteria2
Market Segmentation Criteria
  • Identifiable
    • Can you measure the size of the market?
    • Can you distinguish them from the general population?
    • Basic demographics…measurable
market segmentation criteria3
Market Segmentation Criteria
  • Accessible / Reachable
    • Can they be found
      • Obese children
      • HS Drop outs
      • Isolated seniors
    • Can they be communicated with?
      • Above groups
      • Children / adults who don’t speak English
market segmentation criteria4
Market Segmentation Criteria
  • Responsive
    • Ability of the programs to meet needs of the segment
    • Responsiveness of the segment to marketing initiatives
      • Use segmentation approach that gets us to a responsive segment
  • Perceived Need
    • May be excluded based on other criteria
    • Need exists for services
      • Low income, obese children, youth at risk
When the seller mass produces, mass distributes & mass promotes one product to all buyers this is called…
  • Target marketing
  • Market segmentation
  • Mass marketing
  • Marketing mix
when you take a large community and break it into smaller homogenous sections you are doing what
When you take a large community and break it into smaller homogenous sections you are doing what?
  • Mass marketing
  • Segmenting the market
  • Targeting the market
  • Manipulating the marketing mix