The Industrial Revolution The Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment led people to develop new ways of doing things. Among these new ways were processes and machines for raising crops, making cloth, and other jobs. These developments led to dramatic changes in industry and the world of work. Because so much changed, this era is called the Industrial Revolution. It began in Great Britain and then spread to other parts of the world.
Section One: A New Kind of Revolution In the 1700’s, conditions in Great Britain led to the rapid growth of the textile industry, which in turn led to huge changes in many other industries.
Reading Focus • Why did the Industrial Revolution begin in Great Britain? • How did industrialization cause a revolution in the production of textiles? • How did steam power the Industrial Revolution? • Where did industrialization spread beyond Great Britain?
A Revolution in Great Britain • For years, people had used human and animal power as their main energy sources. • People began to develop water and steam power to drive new machines and perform countless tasks. • This era is called the INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION • An era when the use of power-driven machinery was developed
Factors for Success • Exploration and colonialism • Great Britain claimed colonies around the world that provided raw material such as cotton fiber • Seapower • Great Britain had the largest, most powerful navy in the world • Political stability • Although Britain fought wars in the 1700’s, at home the country was at peace • Government support • Parliament passed laws that favored business • Growth of private investment • “research and development”
Britain’s Big Advantage • Britain had the factors of production: land, labor, and capital • Land • Had all the natural resources: coal, iron, and water from streams and rivers • Labor • Growing population due to a greater food supply • Capital • Funds for investment in businesses; the country was prosperous and people had money to spend
A Revolution in Textiles • The Industrial Revolution began with British cloth-making, or textile, industry. • Weaving was a cottage industry, but the old ways of making cloth are completely transformed by industrialization. • Unfortunately, the shipment of cotton fiber from the British colonies – especially America – made slavery become more entrenched in the South.
New Inventions Help With Textiles • Eli Whitney – creates the cotton gin • James Hargreaves – creates the spinning jenny
Steam Powers the Revolution • When water is heated and changes into steam, it expands. British inventors learned how to harness the force of steam to drive machines that transformed the world. • Using steam power instead of water power meant that factories no longer had to be built near nearby supplies of water. Instead, they could be located where fuel and people already lived. • Robert Fulton created the steamship.