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Rotation curves & lensing. Cosmic acceleration. Stars, planets, Human life. Nuclear Science: The Mission. Understand the origin, evolution, and structure of the baryonic matter of the Universe. from M. Ramsey-Musolf, Caltech. FUNDAMENTAL PARTICLES+INTERACTIONS redux.

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nuclear science the mission

Rotation curves & lensing

Cosmic acceleration

Stars, planets, Human life

Nuclear Science: The Mission

Understand the origin, evolution, and structure of the baryonic matter of the Universe

from M. Ramsey-Musolf, Caltech

slide3

Some of the Big Questions of Nuclear Physics

Hot Dense Matter and Phase Transitions

(What are the phases, how did the early universe behave?)

QCD and the Structure of Matter

(How are nucleons constructed from quarks and gluons, what about nuclei? )

Fundamental Symmetries

(n’s, neutron beams, radioactive ion traps)

Origins of the Elements

(How are elements formed in stars, how do stars burn, what are the limits of stability?)

slide4

stable and

radioactive

beams

electron

scattering

relativistic

heavy ions

heavy

nuclei

few

body

quarks

gluons

vacuum

Modern Tools of Nuclear Physics

From W. Nazarewicz, ORNL

what is the origin of the elements

X-ray burst

Mass known

4U1728-34

Half-life known

s process

nothing known

331

Pb (82)

330

Frequency (Hz)

329

p process

328

327

r process

10

15

20

Time (s)

Supernova

Sn (50)

rp process

Fe (26)

E0102-72.3

n-Star

Supernovae

stellar burning

Cosmic Rays

protons

H(1)

Big Bang

neutrons

KS 1731-260

What is the Origin of the Elements?

from MSU Phys 983 web site

www.nscl.msu.edu/~schatz/PHY983/topics.htm

slide6

Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, Brookhaven, NY

Search for evidence of transition from nucleons to “free” quarks + gluons at very high energy density.

hot dense matter
Hot Dense Matter

compare d-Au collisions with Au-Au collisions

PHENIX detector

fundamental symmetries of nature
Fundamental Symmetries of Nature

Nuclear Physics is a Tool

atomic trapping of radioactive atoms

neutron decay

a trapped 21Na atom at Berkeley

test time reversal invariance

unitarity of quark mixing

neutron lifetime -> He abundance

Sudbury Neutrino

Observatory (SNO)

solar neutrino mixing showed that neutrinos have mass

what are the masses?

Are there more than 3 types?

slide9

Jefferson Laboratory, Newport News, VA

A 6 GeV continuous

electron beam accelerator

superconducting RF cavities

First beam in 1995

3 experimental halls

50-100 people per

experiment

Research program

hadron structure

properties of light nuclei

strangeness in nuclei

atomic structure and quantum electrodynamics

e

p

(n,q)

Atomic Structure and Quantum Electrodynamics

=

Energy Levels of H:

(Bohr Model)

(Fine structure)

+ …

(Lamb shift)

qcd and the structure of matter
QCD and the Structure of Matter

Strong interaction  QCD

as 1

  • can also have:

do not exist in QED!

e.g. Proton: u + u + d Qp = 2(2/3) + (-1/3) = 1

Neutron: u+ d + d Qn = (2/3) + 2(-1/3) = 0

BUT:quarks are very light and relativistic

gluons carry angular momentum

interaction is STRONG and INCREASING with distance

ground state structure of matter
Ground State Structure of Matter

Example 1: Hydrogen atom

MH = 1.00794(7) amu = 938.89(6) MeV

Mp = 938.27231(28) MeV

me = 0.51099906(15) MeV

Ionization energy = 13.6 eV = 10-8 MH

Example 2: pion

  • Mp+ = 139.57072(35) MeV
  • mu 4 MeV
  • md 7 MeV
    • (mu+md)  0.1 Mp

Example 3: proton

Mp = 938.27231(28) MeV

(2mu+md)  0.015 Mp

slide13

Determining the structure of small things

l d

l d

De Broglie Wavelength:l ~ h/p (~ hc/E)

visible:l ~ 500 nm, E ~ few eV  atomic structure

X-rays:l ~ 0.01-1 nm, E ~ few keV  crystallography

gamma rays:l < 0.1 nm

E ~ MeV (106 eV)  nucleons inside nuclei

E ~ GeV (109 eV)  quark structure of nucleons

(1 electron-Volt = 1.602 x 10-19 Joules)

theoretical tools
Theoretical Tools

Effective

field

theory

perturbative

QCD

measurements

are guide

find “effective” degrees of freedom to relate observation to measurement. Works well for 2 nucleons, not so well for > 2.

quarks + gluons

are weakly interacting

at high energy. Can

use successive

approximations

lattice

QCD

“brute force”: large scale computing

Put quarks on a grid in (x,y,z,t), compute interactions, build nucleon

g0 apparatus

One octant’s scintillator array

G0 Apparatus

20 cm LH2 Target

determine how strange quarks contribute to proton’s charge

applications of nuclear physics and np training
Applications of Nuclear Physics (and NP training)
  • Nuclear medicine and medical imaging
  • oil exploration/geophysics
  • materials development w/ neutron beams
  • homeland security (detection of radioactive materials)
  • environmental science (waste transmutation, nonproliferation)
  • teaching
  • advanced computation and simulation
  • technical consulting and management
  • the stock market (!)
  • science policy in government
nuclear science ten questions
Nuclear Science: Ten Questions

Why is there more matter than anti-matter ?

How do the properties of baryons, leptons and their interactions reflect the symmetries of the early Universe?

What is the nature of baryonic matter at the highest temperatures and densities ?

How do the properties of the vacuum evolve with temperature?

How is the nucleon assembled from the quarks and gluons of the Standard Model?

How do the interactions between quarks and gluons give rise to the properties of light nuclei?

How do the properties of complex nuclei arise from the elementary NN interaction?

What are the limits of nuclei and atoms?

How does the physics of nuclei impact the physical Universe (origin of heavy elements)?

How does the physics of nuclei impact the physical Universe (neutron stars, supernovae, neutrinos…)?