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LABOR ATORY . FIRE SAFETY. Fire Marshal’s Office Department of Environmental Safety. Objectives. Learn UMD Emergency Procedures. Become familiar with emergency equipment in your area and learn how to use it. Identify fire hazards in laboratory settings:. Texas Tech – January 15, 2001.

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    1. LABORATORY.FIRE SAFETY Fire Marshal’s Office Department of Environmental Safety

    2. Objectives • Learn UMD Emergency Procedures. • Become familiar with emergency equipment in your area and learn how to use it. • Identify fire hazards in laboratory settings:

    3. Texas Tech – January 15, 2001 • On January 15, 2001, a fire occurred in a Chemistry Building laboratory. A 4-liter bottle of flammable liquid broke inside a fume hood, emptying its contents into the hood and onto the floor. Several hot plates were located inside the hood and ignited the flammable liquid. • A researcher was unable to extinguish the fire with two portable fire extinguishers and quickly exited the laboratory. 911 was called. • Other bottles of flammable materials soon broke, providing more fuel and allowing the fire to intensify. Soon after, a small explosion occurred when flammable materials stored in the cabinet underneath the hood became involved in the fire. The Fire Department extinguished the fire.


    5. Become familiar with procedures in your laboratory

    6. Activation of the Fire Alarm System • Know the locations of the nearest fire alarm pull stations • The fire alarm is monitored by the Dept. of Public Safety

    7. Evacuation Plan • Know the locations of the nearest exit and alternate exits • Know how to be accounted for

    8. Emergency Telephone Numbers Cell Phones #3333 Verizon Wireless, Sprint Nextel, ATT, and T-Mobile Campus Phones 911 301-405-3333 Others ALL FIRES, INCLUDING EXTINGUISHED FIRES, MUST BE REPORTED TO THE FIRE DEPARTMENT

    9. Know Where Emergency Equipment is and How to Use It

    10. Fire Alarm System • Fire Alarm may be activated automatically by smoke detectors or the sprinkler system in addition to manually by pull stations

    11. Sprinkler System • Sprinklers are activated individually by heat and are automatic • Not all laboratories are sprinklered

    12. Sprinkler System

    13. Fire Extinguishers • Fire Extinguishers are placed in certain locations as required by the fire code. • Total and immediate evacuation is safest. The UM Policy on Fire Emergencies is a total evacuation policy. You are required to fight a fire. NOT

    14. If you are trained in the safe use of fire extinguishers and chose to fight a fire: • DO NOT place yourself or others in danger • DO NOT delay activation of the fire alarm • DO NOT delay notification of the fire department

    15. Emergency Shower and Eyewash Station

    16. Fire Blankets • Fire blankets are not supplied

    17. Know How to Operate Your Equipment

    18. Natural Gas Valves • Make sure valves are fully closed when not in use Be aware of open valves and leaks DONOT disregard slight odors

    19. Heat Producing & Electrical Equipment • Be familiar with controls and features. All unattended heat producing equipment is required to have a manual reset over-temperature switch. • All unattended operations must be provided with automatic shutdown to prevent system failure that could result in a fire or explosion. • Operate equipment in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions. • Make sure equipment is turned off when not in use.

    20. Keep heat producing equipment clear of flammable and combustibles. • Electric stirrers, when used with combustible or flammable liquids which are heated above their flash points, must be suitable for such use. • Refrigerators, freezers, or coolers must be prominently labeled to indicate whether they are or are not suitable for storing flammable liquids. • Use only properly installed electrical wiring and UL listed/FM approved electrical equipment – avoid extension cords.

    21. Electrical Safety • Misuse of extension cords is the most common electrical hazard found in labs

    22. Electrical Safety • Use power strips with built in circuit breakers. • Use electrical equipment that is listed and use it according to manufacturer’s instructions

    23. Know The Properties of The Material You Are Working With

    24. Oxidizers • Oxidizers produce oxygen that supports and accelerates fires • Examples: Nitric Acid, Oxygen • Hazards: Increase intensity of fires, may react like explosives

    25. Organic Peroxides • Examples: Hydrogen Peroxides, Peracetic Acid • Hazards: Unstable and explosive in fires, extremely flammable, may be shock and friction sensitive

    26. Corrosives • Liquids or solids that destroy human tissue • Examples: Hydrochloric Acid, Nitric Acid, Picric Acid • Hazards: Can be oxidizers, water reactive, unstable, poisonous

    27. Explosives • Explosives require, licenses, permits and special storage arrangements

    28. Compressed Gas • May be flammable, non-flammable, liquefied, or cryogenic • Examples: Propane, hydrogen, oxygen and liquid nitrogen • Hazards: May be flammable, may support combustion (oxidizer), high expansion ratios, B.L.E.V.E. One spare cylinder allowed per operation in laboratories

    29. Flammable Solids • Alkali metals that burn under certain conditions • Examples: Magnesium, Sodium, Phosphorous • Hazards: Ignite easily and burn violently, may react with water and air, produce toxic or corrosive vapors

    30. Flammable and Combustible Liquids • Give off concentrations of vapor which form an ignitable mixture with air • Examples: Ethyl Ether, Toluene, Glacial Acidic Acid • Hazards: Ignitable and burn, hazards associated with other chemical classes.

    31. Storage and Use of FlammableAnd Combustible Liquids

    32. Flammable Liquids Storage Cabinet • Keeps fire away from flammable vapors • May ONLY be ventilated directly to the outside IF specifically necessary (i.e., exposure concentration concerns)

    33. Flammable Liquids Storage Refrigerator • Keeps ignition sources away from flammables stored inside • Explosion Proof only necessary in hazardous locations $$$

    34. Factors AffectingStorage and Use • Layout, construction, and arrangement of buildings • Classification of liquid • Quantities of liquid • Type of container

    35. Summary Of Storage Requirements • There is a maximum quantity of liquid that can be stored outside of a flammable liquid storage cabinet or safety cans. The maximum quantity in an instructional laboratory is 50% less than that for a research laboratory. • A maximum of 120 gallons of Class I, Class II, Class IIIA liquids may be stored in a flammable liquid storage cabinet. Of this total not more than 60 gallons shall be of Class I and Class II liquids. Not more than 3 such cabinets are allowed per fire area.

    36. There is a maximum quantity of liquid that can be stored in any laboratory including inside a flammable liquid storage cabinet. The maximum quantity in an instructional laboratory is 50% less than that for a research laboratory. The quantity is based on many factors. Rule of Thumb – Store the minimum amount necessary, keep it in a flammable liquid storage cabinet and take out only what you need when you need it.

    37. Flammable and Combustible Liquids • Keep aisles clear for emergency egress • Do not place items in corridors or stairwells • Do not place flammable liquids near exits • Do not obstruct fire safety equipment • Keep lab area neat • Properly segregate chemicals

    38. Reference Material NFPA Fire Protection Guide on Hazardous Materials (Latest Edition) NFPA NFPA 45 Standard on Fire Protection for Laboratories Using Chemicals DES UMD Policy on Fire Emergencies UMD Policy on Means of Egress