LABOR ATORY . FIRE SAFETY. Fire Marshal’s Office Department of Environmental Safety. Objectives. Learn UMD Emergency Procedures. Become familiar with emergency equipment in your area and learn how to use it. Identify fire hazards in laboratory settings:. Texas Tech – January 15, 2001.
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LABORATORY.FIRE SAFETY Fire Marshal’s Office Department of Environmental Safety
Objectives • Learn UMD Emergency Procedures. • Become familiar with emergency equipment in your area and learn how to use it. • Identify fire hazards in laboratory settings:
Texas Tech – January 15, 2001 • On January 15, 2001, a fire occurred in a Chemistry Building laboratory. A 4-liter bottle of flammable liquid broke inside a fume hood, emptying its contents into the hood and onto the floor. Several hot plates were located inside the hood and ignited the flammable liquid. • A researcher was unable to extinguish the fire with two portable fire extinguishers and quickly exited the laboratory. 911 was called. • Other bottles of flammable materials soon broke, providing more fuel and allowing the fire to intensify. Soon after, a small explosion occurred when flammable materials stored in the cabinet underneath the hood became involved in the fire. The Fire Department extinguished the fire.
Know YourEmergencyProcedures UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY DIVISION OF ADMINISTRATIVE AFFAIRS Emergency Response Guide EMERGENCY RESPONSE FIRE RADIATION SPILL CHEMICAL SPILL BIOLOGICAL SPILL PERSONAL INJURY
Activation of the Fire Alarm System • Know the locations of the nearest fire alarm pull stations • The fire alarm is monitored by the Dept. of Public Safety
Evacuation Plan • Know the locations of the nearest exit and alternate exits • Know how to be accounted for
Emergency Telephone Numbers Cell Phones #3333 Verizon Wireless, Sprint Nextel, ATT, and T-Mobile Campus Phones 911 301-405-3333 Others ALL FIRES, INCLUDING EXTINGUISHED FIRES, MUST BE REPORTED TO THE FIRE DEPARTMENT
Fire Alarm System • Fire Alarm may be activated automatically by smoke detectors or the sprinkler system in addition to manually by pull stations
Sprinkler System • Sprinklers are activated individually by heat and are automatic • Not all laboratories are sprinklered
Sprinkler System www.canutesoft.com
Fire Extinguishers • Fire Extinguishers are placed in certain locations as required by the fire code. • Total and immediate evacuation is safest. The UM Policy on Fire Emergencies is a total evacuation policy. You are required to fight a fire. NOT
If you are trained in the safe use of fire extinguishers and chose to fight a fire: • DO NOT place yourself or others in danger • DO NOT delay activation of the fire alarm • DO NOT delay notification of the fire department
Fire Blankets • Fire blankets are not supplied
Natural Gas Valves • Make sure valves are fully closed when not in use Be aware of open valves and leaks DONOT disregard slight odors
Heat Producing & Electrical Equipment • Be familiar with controls and features. All unattended heat producing equipment is required to have a manual reset over-temperature switch. • All unattended operations must be provided with automatic shutdown to prevent system failure that could result in a fire or explosion. • Operate equipment in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions. • Make sure equipment is turned off when not in use.
Keep heat producing equipment clear of flammable and combustibles. • Electric stirrers, when used with combustible or flammable liquids which are heated above their flash points, must be suitable for such use. • Refrigerators, freezers, or coolers must be prominently labeled to indicate whether they are or are not suitable for storing flammable liquids. • Use only properly installed electrical wiring and UL listed/FM approved electrical equipment – avoid extension cords.
Electrical Safety • Misuse of extension cords is the most common electrical hazard found in labs
Electrical Safety • Use power strips with built in circuit breakers. • Use electrical equipment that is listed and use it according to manufacturer’s instructions
Oxidizers • Oxidizers produce oxygen that supports and accelerates fires • Examples: Nitric Acid, Oxygen • Hazards: Increase intensity of fires, may react like explosives
Organic Peroxides • Examples: Hydrogen Peroxides, Peracetic Acid • Hazards: Unstable and explosive in fires, extremely flammable, may be shock and friction sensitive
Corrosives • Liquids or solids that destroy human tissue • Examples: Hydrochloric Acid, Nitric Acid, Picric Acid • Hazards: Can be oxidizers, water reactive, unstable, poisonous
Explosives • Explosives require, licenses, permits and special storage arrangements
Compressed Gas • May be flammable, non-flammable, liquefied, or cryogenic • Examples: Propane, hydrogen, oxygen and liquid nitrogen • Hazards: May be flammable, may support combustion (oxidizer), high expansion ratios, B.L.E.V.E. One spare cylinder allowed per operation in laboratories
Flammable Solids • Alkali metals that burn under certain conditions • Examples: Magnesium, Sodium, Phosphorous • Hazards: Ignite easily and burn violently, may react with water and air, produce toxic or corrosive vapors
Flammable and Combustible Liquids • Give off concentrations of vapor which form an ignitable mixture with air • Examples: Ethyl Ether, Toluene, Glacial Acidic Acid • Hazards: Ignitable and burn, hazards associated with other chemical classes.
Flammable Liquids Storage Cabinet • Keeps fire away from flammable vapors • May ONLY be ventilated directly to the outside IF specifically necessary (i.e., exposure concentration concerns)
Flammable Liquids Storage Refrigerator • Keeps ignition sources away from flammables stored inside • Explosion Proof only necessary in hazardous locations $$$
Factors AffectingStorage and Use • Layout, construction, and arrangement of buildings • Classification of liquid • Quantities of liquid • Type of container
Summary Of Storage Requirements • There is a maximum quantity of liquid that can be stored outside of a flammable liquid storage cabinet or safety cans. The maximum quantity in an instructional laboratory is 50% less than that for a research laboratory. • A maximum of 120 gallons of Class I, Class II, Class IIIA liquids may be stored in a flammable liquid storage cabinet. Of this total not more than 60 gallons shall be of Class I and Class II liquids. Not more than 3 such cabinets are allowed per fire area.
There is a maximum quantity of liquid that can be stored in any laboratory including inside a flammable liquid storage cabinet. The maximum quantity in an instructional laboratory is 50% less than that for a research laboratory. The quantity is based on many factors. Rule of Thumb – Store the minimum amount necessary, keep it in a flammable liquid storage cabinet and take out only what you need when you need it.
Flammable and Combustible Liquids • Keep aisles clear for emergency egress • Do not place items in corridors or stairwells • Do not place flammable liquids near exits • Do not obstruct fire safety equipment • Keep lab area neat • Properly segregate chemicals
Reference Material NFPA Fire Protection Guide on Hazardous Materials (Latest Edition) NFPA NFPA 45 Standard on Fire Protection for Laboratories Using Chemicals DES www.des.umd.edu UMD Policy on Fire Emergencies UMD Policy on Means of Egress