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PMB PAST YEAR QUESTIONS. FORM 2. Pg. 75. 7. (a) To be drawn on the board. O hours of daylight and 24 hours of darkness. (b) Lifestyle A Alaska (North American Tundra).

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Pg 75
Pg. 75

7. (a)

  • To be drawn on the board.

  • O hours of daylight and 24 hours of darkness.


  • Lifestyle A

  • Alaska (North American Tundra)

iii. Sledges pulled by dogs have been replaced with motorised snowmobiles. They live in permanent settlement instead of igloos and tents.

8. (a)

  • Straits A – Bering Straits

    Port B – Valdez

    C – Arctic Circle

  • Draw a line from Prudhoe Bay to B. (1275 km)


  • In winter the temperature drops to -51°C and it is totally dark for eight weeks.

  • Advantages:

  • They have an easier way of life.

  • Large settlements have grown and roads are built.


  • The new jobs do not employ large number of people.

  • Many inuit have lost their traditional hunting land.

  • Uranium,, zinc, copper and natural gas.

9. (a)

  • X – Mantle Y: Continental crust

  • Y

  • Granite/basalt; limestone/sandstone; marble/slate

  • When molten rock cools and solidifies, it will form an igneous rock.

Earth ‘s crust


  • Plate x – Indo-Australian Plate

    Volcano 1 – Krakatoa

    Volcano 2 – Mt. Kilimanjaro

    Fold mountain 3 – Himalayas

  • Volcanoes are formed when plates move towards or away from each other.

  • Magma which comes up to the earth’s surface is called lava. The lava may build up a cone-shaped mountain called a volcano.

  • Crater lakes are formed in volcanic calderas or craters after volcanoes have been inactive for some times.


10. (a) surface and form volcanoes.

  • A – Western Cordillera

    B – Altiplano (Intermontane Plateau)

    C – Eastern Cordillera

  • B = 3000 m (3000/1000 x 6= 18°C)

    = 30 – 18 = 12°C

(b) surface and form volcanoes.

  • La Paz

  • Haciendas

  • The movement of animals up the mountain in summer and down to the lowland in winter in search of good pasture and water.

  • Collections of squatter houses made from waste materials, which are found on the outskirts of cities in developing countries.

  • Many of the rural migrants from the rural to urban areas end up living in shanty towns.

11. (a) surface and form volcanoes.

  • It involves the breaking up of rocks into fragments but there is no change in the chemical make-up of the rock.

  • Exfoliation.

  • Rock expands during the day when it is very hot. At night it is cooler and rock contracts. The continuous expansion and contraction of rock cause the rocks to break and layers of rocks peel off the surface.

(b) surface and form volcanoes.

  • Chemical weathering (hydrolysis).

  • 1. High rainfall

    2. High temperatures

  • Hydrolysis

  • Brunei Darussalam

(c) surface and form volcanoes.

  • Surface runoff

  • The roots of trees help to anchor the soil firmly.

  • The heavy rain will wash away the exposed soil.

  • 1. Slopes can be turfed with grass.

    2. The construction of drains to drain away the rainwater.

12. (a) surface and form volcanoes.

  • China – Huang Ho, Yangtze Kiang

    Brazil – Amazon River

  • 1. Water for drinking

    2. Irrigation


  • Refer to the board.

  • Mountain course

  • Interlocking spurs, rapids

  • A waterfall occurs in the mountain section of a river. When a river flows across rocks of different resistance, the soft rock is easily eroded than the hard rock. A waterfall is formed due to sudden change in gradient.


Floodplain surface and form volcanoes.



  • P – Ox-bow lake Q – Floodplain

  • Refer pg. 69, Fig. 6.15


  • Interlocking spurs.

  • Upper

  • Waterfall

  • Near the source, the volume of the water in the river is small but increases when it is joined by tributaries. Vertical erosion is active here and a narrow V-shaped valley is formed.

(e) surface and form volcanoes.

  • To (iii) – explain on the board

  • Middle course

  • Hydraulic action is the force of flowing water may remove particles from the banks or bed.

  • So that the water will be cleaned and safe for drinking.

13. (a) surface and form volcanoes.

  • Egypt

  • 200 million cubic metres.

  • The amount of water in a river.

  • August, September

  • The rainfall is heavier at this time.

  • It means supplying the land with water, using man-made methods.

  • 1. The dam traps the silt which the Nile carries and the silt settles on the floor of kale Nasser.

    2. Lake Nasser is becoming more salty with the high evaporation rate.

(b) surface and form volcanoes.

  • Traditional – shaduf/sakia

    Modern – Perennial irrigation

  • The Nile valley is a very dry area and farming is only possible if irrigation is practised.

  • 1. For safe drinking water.

    2. The water is used for irrigation.


  • 1. Switzerland

    2. Netherlands

    ii. It is the cheapest way to transport raw materials.

  • Mouth; transport; Rotterdam; European; hinterland; surface and form volcanoes.entrepot


  • The discharge of industrial waste into the river.

  • River life, such as birds, insects and plants are destroyed.

  • 1. iron ore

    2. coal

    iii. In 1963, Switzerland, West Germany, France, Belgium and the Netherlands set up the Rhine Protection Commission. They have agreed to take measures to reduce pollution of the river.

v. It is an surface and form volcanoes.entrepôt, where goods are transferred from ocean-going ships to smaller vessels for distribution to smaller boats, particularly along the Rhine River and its connecting waterways.

14. (a)

  • West to East

  • The zigzag movement of sediments along the shore by swash and backwash.

  • To stop the longshore drift.

(b) surface and form volcanoes.

  • Sand spit

  • West to east

  • Materials are transported along the coast by the longshore drift. The materials are deposited as they enter the deep water and form a spit.

  • Groynes.

(c) surface and form volcanoes.

  • It is located at the major shipping channel. It has a container terminal which handles containers. Warehouses are available to store the goods.

  • Large ships cannot enter the old port.


  • Hinterland

  • Dry bulk

  • Containers

(e) surface and form volcanoes.

  • Ships travelling form the Indian Ocean to the South China Sea and into the Pacific pass near Singapore because it is at the southern tip of mainland Asia.

  • Keppel Wharves

  • It has deep water, which can take large ships.

  • East Lagoon Container terminal.

  • A large metal box that is easy to load onto and unload from specially designed ships.

  • A variety of items can be carried in a container, some are even refrigerated to carry load.

15. (a) surface and form volcanoes.

  • A – wave-cut platform

    B- Arch

    C – Stack

  • 1. Rocks fragments knock against each other and become smaller in size through attrition.

    2. Seawater dissolves the rock minerals through solution.

  • The harder rocks are cut back more slowly than the soft rocks.

  • It is the easiest and cheapest way to carry bulky raw materials.

    The oceans provide us with important protein and oils from fish.

    Oceans form an important part of the water cycle.

(b) surface and form volcanoes.

  • Oceanic ridge

  • Continental shelf

  • Atlantic Ocean

  • Away from

  • Repeated, refer no. 15(a) iv.

  • Oceans influence climate by affecting the temperatures and rainfall, such as the land and sea breezes and the relief rain.