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Chapter 3 Opener An evolutionary trend

Chapter 3 Opener An evolutionary trend

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Chapter 3 Opener An evolutionary trend

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  1. Chapter 3 Opener An evolutionary trend

  2. Figure 3.1 Two possible histories of change of a character in the Hominoidea

  3. Figure 3.2 Strains of human immunodeficiency virus and simian immunodeficiency viruses

  4. Figure 3.3 Forelimb skeletons of some tetrapod vertebrates

  5. Figure 3.3 Forelimb skeletons of some tetrapod vertebrates (Part 1)

  6. Figure 3.3 Forelimb skeletons of some tetrapod vertebrates (Part 2)

  7. Figure 3.3 Forelimb skeletons of some tetrapod vertebrates (Part 3)

  8. Figure 3.4 The eyes of a vertebrate and a squid or octopus are an extraordinary example of convergent evolution

  9. Figure 3.4 The eyes of a vertebrate and a squid or octopus are an extraordinary example of convergent evolution

  10. Figure 3.5 Parallel evolution

  11. Figure 3.5 Parallel evolution (Part 1)

  12. Figure 3.5 Parallel evolution (Part 2)

  13. Figure 3.6 Convergent evolution based on mutations of the same gene, Mc1r

  14. Figure 3.7 Phylogeny of part of the salamander family Plethodontidae showing that species of Desmognathus with aquatic larvae are nested within a large group of taxa that lack the larval stage

  15. Figure 3.7 Phylogeny of part of the salamander family Plethodontidae showing that species of Desmognathus with aquatic larvae are nested within a large group of taxa that lack the larval stage

  16. Figure 3.8 Similar bill shape has evolved independently as an adaptation for feeding on nectar

  17. Figure 3.9 An example of mosaic evolution

  18. Figure 3.10 Variation in the shape and length of the bill among sandpipers

  19. Figure 3.11 Stepwise evolution of the C4 photosynthetic phenotype in the plant family Molluginaceae

  20. Figure 3.12 Structures are modified for new functions, and there are different evolutionary paths to a functional end

  21. Figure 3.12 Structures are modified for new functions, and there are different evolutionary paths to a functional end

  22. Figure 3.13 Similarities and differences among vertebrate embryos at different stages of development

  23. Figure 3.14 The teeth of mammals provide an example of the acquisition and loss of individualization

  24. Figure 3.14 The teeth of mammals provide an example of the acquisition and loss of individualization

  25. Figure 3.15 Paedomorphosis in salamanders

  26. Figure 3.16 Comparison of the skulls of a progenetic dwarf salamander Thorius and a typical nonprogenetic relative, Pseudoeurycea

  27. Figure 3.16 Comparison of the skulls of a progenetic dwarf salamander Thorius and a typical nonprogenetic relative, Pseudoeurycea

  28. Figure 3.17 Hypothetical curves showing various allometric growth relationships between two body measurements

  29. Figure 3.18 (A) Allometry and peramorphosis in the extinct Irish elk (B) Logarthimic plot of antler size against body size for 20 species of deer , including Irish elk (M)

  30. Figure 3.19 Monstera deliciosa is a creeping vine native to Central America

  31. Figure 3.20 An example of reduction and loss of structures during evolution

  32. Figure 3.21 Evolutionary trends in columbines (Aquilegia)

  33. Figure 3.22 Adaptive radiation of Darwin’s finches in the Galápagos Islands and Cocos Island

  34. Figure 3.23 Some members of the Hawaiian silversword alliance: closely related species with different growth forms

  35. Figure 3.24 A sample of the ecologically diverse Cichlidae of the African Great Lakes

  36. Figure 3.25 Evidence of convergence of the prestin gene

  37. Figure 3.25 Evidence of convergence of the prestin gene (Part 1)

  38. Figure 3.25 Evidence of convergence of the prestin gene (Part 2)

  39. Figure 3.26 Genome size variation

  40. Figure 3.27 Numbers of genes estimated for some eukaryotes whose genomes have been fully sequenced

  41. Figure 3.28 Orthology and paralogy in gene families

  42. Figure 3.29 The phylogeny of genes in the globin family in the human genome

  43. Figure 3.30 Duplications of the Hox genes