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Transfer of teaching presence between classroom and online MBA learning environments. John E. Wisneski, Doctoral Student, IST Department Dr. Gamze Ozogul, Assistant Professor, IST Department Dr. Ray K. Haynes, Assistant Professor, IST Department. Problem Statement.

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transfer of teaching presence between classroom and online mba learning environments

Transfer of teaching presence between classroom and online MBA learning environments

John E. Wisneski, Doctoral Student, IST Department

Dr. Gamze Ozogul, Assistant Professor, IST Department

Dr. Ray K. Haynes, Assistant Professor, IST Department

problem statement
Problem Statement
  • In 2013, more than 7 million students enrolled in online courses in the U.S.
  • Yet 58% of the 4,564 participating faculty members at institutions of higher education in the U.S. indicated the growth of online learning at their institution filled them with ‘more fear than excitement’.
  • Despite this skepticism among faculty, two-thirds of the 591 chief academic officers surveyed described online learning as a critical component of their institutions’ long-term strategy.
  • As recently as 2010, however, nearly 20% of institutions did not provide any training (not even informal mentoring) for faculty teaching online.
  • Due to this lack of training, faculty members are required to apply their own teaching practices from the classroom in the online environment.

Allen, E. & Seaman, J. (2012). Conflicted: Faculty and Online Education, 2012. Needham, MA: Sloan Consortium.

purpose of study
Purpose of Study

To explore an instructor’s ability to transfer teaching practices between learning environments

The findings of this study are intended to help instructors better anticipate the challenges in adapting teaching presence across multiple learning environments, and may serve as a basis for helping administrators prioritize specific training opportunities to assist in the preparation of online instructors.

defining teaching presence
Defining Teaching Presence

Perhaps the most widely accepted definition of teaching presence comes from the work of Garrison, Anderson & Archer (2000), via the Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework.

the means by which students are engaged in interaction related to building knowledge from the course instructional materials

the planning and design of the structure, process, interaction, and evaluation of the course

the intellectual and scholarly leadership of the instructor based on their subject matter expertise

Garrison, D., Anderson, T. & Archer, W. (2000). Critical inquiry in a text-based environment: Computer conferencing in higher education. The Internet and Higher Education, 2(2-3), 87-105.

defining type of transfer activities
Defining Type of Transfer Activities
  • Routine Transfer: “learn-it-here, apply-it-there”
  • Adaptive Transfer: adapting and revising prior knowledge in the context of the transfer
  • Backward Transfer: refers to the phenomenon where dealing with the new situation may in fact lead to revisions in a prior conception
  • Best Practice Transfer: refers to the application of a relevant organizational exemplar that produces results better than any known alternative

Lobato, J. (2012). The actor-oriented transfer perspective and its contributions to educational research and practice. Educational Psychologist, 47(3), 232-247.

Perkins, David N., & Salomon, Gavriel. (2012). Knowledge to go: A motivational and dispositional view of transfer. Educational Psychologist, 47(3), 248-258.

Schwartz, D. L., Chase, C.C. & Bransford, J.D. (2012). Resisting overzealous transfer: Coordinating previously successful routines with needs for new learning. Educational Psychologist, 47(3), 204-214.

Szulanski, G. (2003). Sticky knowledge: barriers to knowing in the firm. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

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research questions
Research Questions
  • Do instructors’ teaching presence levels differ across classroom and online learning environments?
  • Are the practices that lead to teaching presence transferred between classroom and online learning environments?
  • Is there a relationship between instructors’ transfer activities and their beliefs regarding the successful implementation of teaching practices online or in the classroom?
research design

In seeking to develop a more complete understanding of teaching presence and its transferability across learning environment, a convergent parallel design was chosen.

Research Design
  • Participants
  • 6 instructors from the Kelley School of Business teaching online and face-to-face simultaneously
  • 153 online students
  • 167 face-to-face students
  • Survey Instruments
  • Instructor Teaching Presence Transfer Survey
  • Student Teaching Presence Scale
  • Online Repository Review
  • Direct Messaging & Forum Discussions
  • Lessons (lecture and recorded asynchronous chat sessions)
  • Classroom Observations
preliminary findings
Preliminary Findings
  • Statistically significant variance was found across all elements of Teaching presence between face-to-face and online courses
  • 3 of the 6 instructors who participated were able to achieve similar Teaching Presence in both environments.
  • Facilitating Discourse appeared to be the easiest to achieve in both environments, while Direct Instruction seems to be the hardest to recreate.
  • 5 of the 6 instructors measured higher levels of Teaching Presence online.
limitations
Limitations
  • Limited sample of size of instructor participants (n=6).
  • Factor analysis of TPS revealed the survey instrument loaded on only 2 constructs (Instructional Design and Facilitated Instruction) instead of all 3 elements of Teaching Presence.
implications and further research
Implications and Further Research
  • Training interventions for instructors new to the online environment should include consideration for the transfer of new teaching skills obtained in the online environment back in the classroom.
  • Administrators should consider more than just subject matter expertise when making faculty assignments.
  • Administrators should consider building repositories of best practices for teaching skills based on exemplar performers in each learning environment.
  • Further efforts to identify the specific skills that cannot be recreated across learning environments may lead to more focused instructor training opportunities.
references
References

Allen, E. & Seaman, J. (2014). Grade Change: Tracking Online Education in the United States, 2013. Needham, MA: Sloan Consortium.

Allen, E. & Seaman, J. (2012). Conflicted: Faculty and Online Education, 2012. Needham, MA: Sloan Consortium.

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Arbaugh, J. B. & Hwang, A. (2006). Does “teaching presence” exist in online MBA courses? The Internet and Higher Education, 9, 9-21.

Arbaugh, J. B. & Benbunan-Fich, R. (2007). The importance of participant interaction in online environments. Decision Support Systems, 43, 853-865.

Arbaugh, J. B. & Rau, B.L. (2007). A study of disciplinary, structural, and behavioral effects on course outcomes in online MBA courses. Decision Sciences Journal of Innovative Education, 5(1), 65-95.

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Arbaugh, J.B., Bangert, A. & Cleveland-Innes, M. (2010). Subject matter effects and the community of inquiry (CoI) framework: An exploratory study. Internet and Higher Education, 13, 37-44.

Baker, C. (2010). The Impact of Instructor Immediacy and Presence for Online Student Affective Learning, Cognition, and Motivation. Journal of Educators Online, 7(1).

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