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History Of Medicine. Introduction to Tashrih -e- Mansurii By: AmirReza Dehghanian MD. In the name of God.

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history of medicine

History Of Medicine

Introduction to Tashrih-e-Mansurii

By: AmirRezaDehghanian MD

MANSUR b. Moháammad b. Ahámad b. Faqih Yusof (fl. late 14th-early 15th cent.), a descendent of a Shirazi family of jurists and physicians, is the author of two extant Persian works: a medical compilation entitled the Kefaya-ye mojahediya and an illustrated anatomy text known as the Tashrih-e Mansur i. The text is written in Persian and dedicated to Amirzada Pir Mohámmad Bahador Khan, one of Timur's grandsons, who ruled (797-812/1394-1409) over the province of Fars.
The Tashrih-e Mansuri is unusual in being devoted entirely to anatomy. It consists of an introduction (moqaddema) and five treatises (maqalat), which describe the bones (ezam), nerves (asab), muscles (azal), veins (orada), and arteries (Sharayin). The final section (katema) describes the composite organs (al-aaza-ye-al-Morakkaba) and the generation of the fetus (janin).
  • Ebn-e- Elyas's second extant work, the Kefaya-ye mojahediya (or Kefaya-ye Mansáuri), is a comprehensive medical compilation in two parts (fanns), preceded by an introduction (moqaddema). It is dedicated to Sultan Mojahed-al-Din Zayn-al-Abedin, possibly the Muzaffarid ruler (786-89/1384-87) of Fars. The first part deals with medical theory (dar tebb-e nazari) and medical practice (dar tebb-e amali) according to Galenic principles.
Mansuri classified drugs by three manners as: by their temperaments, drug dosage forms and medicinal uses. He has described methods for preparing drug dosage forms, Drug formulations ,routs for drug administration, drug standardization, drug control before administration, pharmacological tests on the animals, drug delivery, toxicology, bezoars, cosmetics and insect and rodent repellents.
Furthermore, Mansuri has described medical theory and practice. The theoretical section describes the physical as well as the physiological bases of health and their various manifestations. The practical section covers the preservation of health, general therapeutics, diseases and their treatment, including fevers, skin disorders, animal poisons and their antidotes.
al orade
  • In the chapter of the vein, author demonstrated the exact branches of the mesenteric veins (superior and inferior) including splenic, gastro-omental, pancreatico-duodenal, right and middle colic and superior rectal veins.And demonstrated this all branches to form the portal vein. An amazing point related to this part is correspondence of TASHRIH-E-MANSURI `s figure with the figures which are using in anatomic atlases nowadays.
In this chapter, we can see one of the best description about the intrahepatic porto-caval circulation, which is really admirable. In this part the author demonstrated the portal vein as an entrance route of this circulation, portal venules, sinusoids in relation to hepatocytes,centrolobular and sublobular veins are as microstructures of this system and inferior vena cava (IVC) as an exit route.
در صفحه ی 123 آمده است: «اما عروقاجوف منقسم می شود در نفس كبد به عروق كثیرۀ باریك شعری تا جذب غذا كند از شعب باب،...»
al sharaiin

In the chapter of the artery different parts of systemic circulation are best shown and pulmonary circulation is also well demonstrated. In this chapter many large and small arteries are described, for example, the small artery such as circumflex branch of the right coronary artery was definitely described by the author. The branches of the subclavian artery including internal thoracic and vertebral arteries are well demonstrated.

«شرائين عبارت از عروق متحركه است كه از بطن ایسر قلب رسته باشد و در حركت انبساط و انقباض تابع او بود.»

... واوریطی منقسم مي شود به سه قسم: دو از او كه آن را شرائين سباتين گويند. و سوم نيز متفرق مي شود در استخوان سينه و فقره شش گانه از رقبه و در نواحي ترقوه تا مي رسد به سر شانه. و بعد از آن از او در مي گذرد و به یدين مي رسد.»

The author also explained about the layers of the cranial meninges(piamatter and arachnoid layers) and described the cerebral arteries which are embedded within these two layers.
...«و منتسج مي شود به واسطة رگها و طبقات. بعد از انتساج يعني بافته شدن مجتمع مي شود در ايشان زوجي و پيچيده مي گردد به دو غشاء و مرتقي مي گردد به طرف مغز و پراكنده مي شود در دو غشاي رقيق.»
The superior mesenteric artery is demonstrated as a branch which is supply three parts of the small intestine (Duodenum, Jejunum and ileum). In TASHRIH-E-MANSURI these parts of gastrointestinal tract are called “AMAA-E-DEGHAGH” which means three first intestine out of six .An amazing point related with this part is an explanation about the pattern (the term JADAVEL was used)of these branches(vasa recta) which are embedded within the mesentery.
IBN-E-ILYAS in the chapter of the muscle explained about the muscle`s functions and agonist or antagonist interaction between them.
In the chapter of the nerve, the author described visual pathway greatly, and showed nearly exact neurophysiologic aspect of this pathway, which reveals amazing concept of ancient anatomist. In this part of the book the optic nerve, for example, was explained. The optic nerve origin, its anatomic relations (e.g. mammillary body),optic chisma (even mentioned as a cross-shaped structure) and finally the decussation of visual neurons at the site of optic chisma, was described.