University of Applied Sciences Bonn-Rhein-Sieg MBA-Programme «NGO-Management», Winter Semester 2011/12 Module «International Politics» Lecture: Peace and Security by Ursula Mogg. 1. Opening remarks. From Fulda gap to Hindukush. 2. The new challenges for security and peace.
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University of Applied Sciences Bonn-Rhein-Sieg MBA-Programme «NGO-Management», Winter Semester 2011/12 Module «International Politics» Lecture: Peace and Security by Ursula Mogg
Institut für Politische Wissenschaft und Soziologie 1. Opening remarks • From Fulda gap to Hindukush 2. The new challenges for security and peace • Some Papers on Foreign- and Security Politics • From a German perspective • Common Security and Future of the Bundeswehr, 05/2000 • White Paper, 2006 • Weise-Report
Institut für Politische Wissenschaft und Soziologie 2. The new challenges for security and peace • From an European/International perspective • A Secure Europe in a Better World, European Security Strategy, December 2003 • NATO 2020 – Assured Securtiy: Dynamic Engagement, May 2010 • Interest • Security Concept
Institut für Politische Wissenschaft und Soziologie 3. From real life • Coalition Agreement betweeg the CDU, CSU and die FDP Chapter: Securing Peace Through partnership and common responsibility in Europe and the world Two Examples • Kongo • Afghanistan 4. Conclusion
Institut für Politische Wissenschaft und Soziologie Common Security and Future of the Bundeswehr • (Gemeinsame Sicherheit und Zukunft der Bundeswehr, 23. Mai 2000) • For the first time in history Germany is surrounded by friends. • The world of the year 2000 is completly different to the year 1990 and before. • Security is defined not only in military terms. • There is a fundamental task to support democracy and humanitarian interests. • NGOs and international organisations have a fundamental role. • In the 21st century there is no chance for unilateral action.
Institut für Politische Wissenschaft und Soziologie pandemics climate change ecocide human trafficking, drug traffic, arms trade weapons of mass disruption weapons of mass destruction Risks ands threats • ethnic and religious rivalries • violation of human rights • failing and failes states • mass migration • overpopulation • hunger • war for borders, water, farmland
Institut für Politische Wissenschaft und Soziologie Partners • US • France • GB • Russia • Middle- and Eastern Europe • Mediterranean
Institut für Politische Wissenschaft und Soziologie Security architecture/Framework • NATO • European Union (with a very strong emphasis) • OSCE • UN
Institut für Politische Wissenschaft und Soziologie White Paper 2006 on German Security Policy and the Future of the Bundeswehr (Weißbuch) • The White Paper is a publication of the German Ministry of Defence. It describes the security envirnonment for the years to come and comes to conclusions for the personnel, equipment and training of the Bundeswehr. • It was first published in 1969. • 2006: „Twelve years have elapsed since the last White Paper on the Security of the Federal Republic of Germany and die Situation of the Bundeswehr was published. During this time, there have been for-reaching changes in the international situation.“
Institut für Politische Wissenschaft und Soziologie Threats • international terrorism (9/11) • proliferation of weapons of mass destruction • after-effects of intrastate and regional conflics, destabilisation, internal desintegration of states • privatisation of force (Münkler: Die neuen Kriege) • globalisation
Institut für Politische Wissenschaft und Soziologie International Framework • NATO • EU • UN
Institut für Politische Wissenschaft und Soziologie Security concept • comprehensive: „Risks and threats have to be addressed with a suitably matched range of instruments. These include dipolomatic, economic, development policy and policing measures as well as military means and, where called for, also armed operations.“
Institut für Politische Wissenschaft und Soziologie Weise Report • Reflecting the Mission – Concentration, Flexibility, EfficiencyOctober 2010 • „The Federal Minister of Defence will set up a commission which will come up with a proposal by the end of 2010 for key elements of a new organisational structure, including the streamlining of the command and administrative structures.“ (Coalition Agreement 2009)
Institut für Politische Wissenschaft und Soziologie Weise Report • Reflecting the Mission – Concentration, Flexibility, EfficiencyOctober 2010 • Paper refers to the Weizsäcker-Paper and the the White Paper 2006 • looking for a new political consensus for the tasks of the Bundeswehr (German interests) • challenge of asymetric warfare (9/11), technological innovation • conscription • Bonn/Berlin • budget • international framework
Institut für Politische Wissenschaft und Soziologie A Secure Europe in a Better World • European Security Strategy December 2003 • In reaction to the split of the EU in the Iraq question Javier Solana was asked in summer 2003 to write an European security strategy. It was adopted by the Council in December 2003. Document • clarifies its security strategy • aims to achieve a secure Europe in a better world • identifies the threats facing the Union • defines its strategic objectives and setting out the political implications for Europe
Institut für Politische Wissenschaft und Soziologie Terminology • comprehensive approach • different aspects of internal and external security are difficult to separate; • for some globalisation is frustration and unfair; • non-governmental players become more important in global issues; • competion for natural ressources – especially water - create migration und turbulences; • energy dependence creates concern.
Institut für Politische Wissenschaft und Soziologie Objectives/main challenges • terrorism • weapons of mass distruction • regional conflicts • failing or failed states • organised crime
Institut für Politische Wissenschaft und Soziologie Demands • Stability, good governance, multilateralism • UN as a framework for preventive action against dynamic threats • Core of the strategy is prevention of proliferation
Institut für Politische Wissenschaft und Soziologie Partners • US, Canada, Japan, China, India • humanitarian missions • peace-keeping as well as enforcement action Tasks
Institut für Politische Wissenschaft und Soziologie NATO 2020 – Assured Securtiy: Dynamic Engagement • May 2010 • At their Summit in Strasbourg/Kehl in April, 2009, Alliance leaders directed Secretary General Anders Fogh Rasmussen to convene a broadly-based group of qualified experts to prepare the ground for a new NATO Strategic Concept. The Group of Experts, led by its chair Madeleine K. Albright (United States) and vice-chair Jeroen van der Veer (The Netherlands), began work in September 2009.
Institut für Politische Wissenschaft und Soziologie NATO 2020 – Assured Securtiy: Dynamic Engagement • May 2010 • In line with its mandate to encourage an open discussion of NATO’s organisation and purpose, the Group engaged in an extensive series of seminars and consultations with scholars and officials, civilian and military alike, from within and outside the Alliance. The Group, which submitted an interim statement to NATO’s governing body (the North Atlantic Council) on November 24, 2009, presents now its final report.
Institut für Politische Wissenschaft und Soziologie Security Environment • Proliferation • international terrorism • persistence of corrosive regional, national, ethnic and religious rivalries • increased reliance on potentially vulnerable information systems • competition for petroleum and other strategic resources (maritime security) • demographic changes that could aggravate global problems such as poverty, hunger, illegal immigration and pandemic disease • envirnonmental degradation • climate change
Institut für Politische Wissenschaft und Soziologie New Era of Partnerships Comprehensive Approach to complex problems Engaging with Russia Missile Defence Responding Cyber Attacks No World Policeman Role of NATO in 2020 • Collective Defence • Protecting against unconventional threats • Expanding NATO • Establishing Guidelines for Operations Outside Alliance Borders • Success in Afghanistan • Managing Crises
Institut für Politische Wissenschaft und Soziologie Interests • von Weizsäcker: Chapter I „Risks and Interests“ • survival of the German citizens and protection of a democtratic political system • protection of the stability in Europe (Balkans) • maintaining the transatlantic partnership • good relations to the US, France, GB • support of the transformation in Russia • stabilisation of Middle and Eastern Europe • looking to the Mediterranean • reforming the UN • disarmament and arms control
Institut für Politische Wissenschaft und Soziologie White Paper 2006 • preserving justice and freedom, democracy, security, prosperity • ensuring the sovereignity and integrity of German territory • preventing regional crises and conflicts that may affect Germany's security • confronting global challenges (international terrorism, proliferation) • helping uphold human rights and strengthening the international order on the basis of international law • promoting free and unhindered world trade • taking into account Germany geographical location in the heart of Europe
Institut für Politische Wissenschaft und Soziologie White Paper 2006 • taking into account Germany's geographical location in the heart of Europe • cultivate the close and trusting relationsship with the US • strengthen the European area of stability • develop and deepen a lasting and durable security partnership with Russia • develop and deepen partnerships with countries in far-away regions • safeguarding the security interests primarily in international and supranational institutions
Institut für Politische Wissenschaft und Soziologie A secure Europe in a better world: • Being • more active • more capable • more coherent • working with partners („No single country is able to tackle today's complex problems on its own.“)
Institut für Politische Wissenschaft und Soziologie Interests defined in the decisions of the German Bundestag • For example: • Antrag der Bundesregierung vom 04.11.1998 "Deutsche Beteiligung an der NATO-Luftüberwachungsoperation über dem Kosovo": • "Es liegt im besonderen Interesse der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, zur Stabilisierung der Verhältnisse im Kosovo sowie zu einer dauerhaften und tragfähigen Friedensregelung beizutragen und ein Umfeld zu schaffen, in dem eine humanitäre Katastrophe abgewendet werden kann."
Institut für Politische Wissenschaft und Soziologie Afghanistan • In 2001 the epoch-making event of 09/11 changed the international security environment. • The international security community answered with military but also with polical means (similar to the Balkans). The Afghanistan Compact has a focus on • Security, good governance • human rights • economical and social development • fighting the drug economy
Institut für Politische Wissenschaft und Soziologie Germany has a focus on • creating income • drinking water • energy • education • good governance • sustainable ecomical cooperation
Institut für Politische Wissenschaft und Soziologie EUFOR RD Congo • Chronology of the Bundeswehr Mission • 12/27 2005Jean-Marie Guéhenno from France, UN-Undersecretary responsible for the blue helmet missions, asks in a letter for „deterrence forces“ from the EU to support MONUC. • 04/25 2006The UN Security Council adopts Resolution 1671/ 2006 for a EU-Mission in RD Congo04/27 2006The European Commission adopts a "Joint Action" for the deployment of a multinational contingency to protect the presidential and parliamentary elections in the Democratic Republic of Congo
Institut für Politische Wissenschaft und Soziologie EUFOR RD Congo • Chronology of the Bundeswehr Mission • 05/17 2006The German Government decides on the the mission.05/24 2006Approval by the EU.06/01 2006The German Bundestag decides. 06/07 2006Javier Solana, High Represantative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy of the EU, visits the Operations Headquarters (OHQ) in Potsdam-Geltow.
Institut für Politische Wissenschaft und Soziologie EUFOR RD Congo • Chronology of the Bundeswehr Mission • 07/05 2006Minister of Defence Franz Josef Jung (CDU) visits the Demokratic Republic of Congo and Gabun to get informed on the preparatory work for the mission07/10 2006Bundeswehr starts to bring its contingency to RD Congo. There will be up to 780 soldiers for four months.07/30 2006The first free presidential and parliamentary elections after 45 years take place.
Institut für Politische Wissenschaft und Soziologie EUFOR RD Congo • Chronology of the Bundeswehr Mission • 08/21 2006None of the candidates finds a majority, neither President Joseph Kabila (45 per cent) nor Jean-Pierre Bemba (20 per cent). Both go into a second round October 29. • 08/22 2006Bemba and Kabila men get involved in combat. EUFOR-have to protect European and US diplomats. 10/29 2006 election day. • 11/16 2006The results show that Joseph Kabila is the winner (58 per cent), Jean-Pierre Bemba (42 Prozent).
Institut für Politische Wissenschaft und Soziologie EUFOR RD Congo • Chronology of the Bundeswehr Mission • 11/28 2006The Supreme Court of RD Congo confirms the result. 11/30 2006After four months the mandate for "EUFOR RD CONGO" ends.12/01 2006German Forces are homeward bound. 12/3 2006German soldiers are home again.
Institut für Politische Wissenschaft und Soziologie are'nt we already overstretched (Balkans, Afghanistan, Horn of Africa)? the battle-group concept what can 1500 European soldiers effect in comparison to nearly 17.000 UN soldiers? easy to go in but difficult to go out Headquarter? the obvious wish of the Congolese people to have democratic elections after more than 40 years Long lasting decision making process • emotions („The heart of darkness“) • infant soldiers • climate • lack of experience in Africa • is the RD Congo interested in European help? • whether and how? • how many soldiers from which countries?
Institut für Politische Wissenschaft und Soziologie German conditions • Congolese approval • UN mandate • EU mandate • place of action (Kinshasa and region) • time/duration • substantial involvement of a number of European partners
Institut für Politische Wissenschaft und Soziologie Interests • For the first time in the post cold-war era Germany discussed openly its interests among which it discovered for die Mission in RD CONGO: • RD Congo is one of the most important countries in Africa. The situation there has a large influence on its neighbours. • An instable situation in RD Congo may lead to new civil war and flows of refugees that has direct influence on Europe. • The country has a lot of resources among which are those for the construction of nuclear weapons.
Institut für Politische Wissenschaft und Soziologie Interests • For the first time in the post cold-war era Germany discussed openly its interests among which it discovered for die Mission in RD CONGO: • interest in the reliability of the UN system and the German wish to become more influencial in this system • interest in a more important role for Europe as a partner in the international arena • interest in the efficiency of the EU security politics
Institut für Politische Wissenschaft und Soziologie Important for the decision: • responsibility for Africa (The EU summit in London under the British Presidency had decided on a strategy for Africa in 2005) • the Ruanda experience • development policy (Germany and the EU invested a lot of money and time in stabilisation and in the preparation of the elections) • deterrence • credibility of German foreign policy • creating an additional value for the UN mission • a signal for the Congolese, visibility • protect the international personnel, evacuation • RD CONGO is of strategic importance
Institut für Politische Wissenschaft und Soziologie Evalutation • EUFOR RD CONGO was not a political „hero story“. It did not really prove that the EU is ready to deliver. A lot of work has do be done in the (near) future). • The mission showed that the EU seems to be overstrained and doesn't have the experience for missions in Africa. • The coordination between the different soldiers was defective. • There was a lot of discussion on the numbers of soldiers and the headquarter. • There were a lot of practical problems during the mission (accomodation, bord, service) because of a lack of experience.
Institut für Politische Wissenschaft und Soziologie Evalutation • In Germany the decision on EUFOR was mainly influenced and encouraged by the Ministry of Development, the Foreign Office and its parliamentary counterparts. Resistance came from the different military levels. • The Congolese where sure that they had a free election. • Deterrence was successful. • Altogether he mission is said to be a success but not a blueprint. • The first time in its history the EU led a multinational military mission to suppurt the UN. • More work has do be done to help RD Congo to become a stable democracy: politically, economically, in human rights and humanitarian terms.
Institut für Politische Wissenschaft und Soziologie Coalition Agreement between CDU, CSU and FDP • Chapter: Securing Peace through partnership and common responsibility in Europe and the world • „The world has become smaller. And we have realised that we all inhabit this one world. Cimate chance, issues of development in many regions of the world, international terrorism and the consequences of the international financiel and economic crisis have all mad it obvious that we can only effectively combat major challenges if we work tother on a global basis.“
Institut für Politische Wissenschaft und Soziologie Coalition Agreement between CDU, CSU and FDP • Germany in Europe • Value-oriented and interest-led foreign policy • Germany's international responsibility • International deployment and instruments within German security policy • Modern and efficient German Armed Forces (Bundeswehr) • Protecting human rights – promoting the rule of law • Cultural relations and education policy • Development co-operation
Institut für Politische Wissenschaft und Soziologie Some observations • In foreign affairs and security politics their is usually a broad concensus in all parties (except the LINKE). The Coalition agreement reflects this. „Germany's future in peace, freedom, security and prosperity is enextricably linked to political developments in Europe and the world. We are committed to a policy that both serves the interests of our country in a unified Europe and contributes to peace in th world. To this end, wie assume a formative role in the alliances and international organisations with wihich we cooperate.“
Institut für Politische Wissenschaft und Soziologie Some observations • Their are a lot of examples that show the liberal origin. „A an export nation we have a great interest in preserving the liberal structures of the global economy on the basis of the charter for sustainable economic activity and in free and secure transport routes.“ • In some ways the paper seems to be very detailed. „We advocate substantially increasing the equal use of the German language as a working language in European institutions; ….“
Institut für Politische Wissenschaft und Soziologie Some observations • The search for compromise is obvious at certain points. „If the EU does not have the capacity to absorb a new member or if Turkey should not be in an position to meet all the obligations of membership, Turkey must be linked as close as possible to European structures in a way that allows the country to further develop its prvileged relationsship with the EU.“ • The lifespan of some regulations seems to bee not very long. „The military service obligation has justified itself and proved its value in recent decades. … The coalition partners remain firmly committed to the principle of the general military service obligation; we aim to reduce the period of miilitary service to six months by 1 January 2011“.
Institut für Politische Wissenschaft und Soziologie Thank you very much for listening!Questions?