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##### Chapter 1 - Introduction

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**Chapter 1 - Introduction**Math 22 Introductory Statistics**What is Statistics?**• Statistics - Involves the collection, organization, interpretation, and presentation of numerical information.**Introductory Terms**• Experimental Units - Subjects • Variable – A characteristic of interest about each individual element of a population or sample • Observations – Particular information that we collect from each subject. • Data Set – Collection of observations.**Items That We Might Want to Study**• Population - Collection of all objects or items that are of interest in a statistical study. • Sample - A finite portion (subset) of the population that is used to study the characteristics of concern in the population. • Target Population - Population of interest in the study.**Items That We Might Want to Study**• Parameter – A numerical value summarizing the entire population • Sample Statistic – A numerical value summarizing the sample data. • Census - A sample consisting of the entire population. (An attempt to sample the entire population)**Descriptive and Inferential Statistics**• Descriptive Statistics - Describes the state of the data which has been collected. • Inferential Statistics - Generalizations or conclusions that extend beyond the collected data, what we call the population.**Levels of Measurement**• Nominal Scale Variables that categorize without any form of natural ordering. • Ordinal Scale Variables that categorize with a form of natural ordering • Interval Scale Require a physical unit of measure. There is no absolute zero (starting point).**Levels of Measurement**• Ratio Scale Very similar to interval scale variables. The key difference is that ratio scale variables have an absolute starting point, an absolute zero.**Types of Measurements**• Numerical Variable (quantitative variable) - A variable whose values are numbers obtained by a measurement. • Discrete Variable • Continuous Variable**Types of Measurements**• Categorical Variable (Qualitative Variable) - Variable whose values are classifications or categories. (i.e. Coding)