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Question of the Day Jan 21. Crossing of dissimilar individuals is known as A. genetic engineering B. inbreeding C. hybridization D. sequencing. DO NOW Jan 21. Recall the lac operon. Draw a diagram of the lac operon in your notes. How is the lac operon expressed?.

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question of the day jan 21
Question of the Day Jan 21

Crossing of dissimilar individuals is known as

A. genetic engineering

B. inbreeding

C. hybridization

D. sequencing

do now jan 21
DO NOW Jan 21

Recall the lac operon.

Draw a diagram of the lac operon in your notes.

How is the lac operon expressed?

progress reports
PROGRESS REPORTS

Due Tomorrow – Wed Jan 22

Keep up the GREAT WORK!!!

We are always striving to do better!

agenda jan 21
AGENDA Jan 21

BIG Question: How do various breeding strategies benefit humans?

1. Question and DO NOW

2. HOMEWORK – DNA Molecules

3. The TRP operon

4. Chapter 13 Genetic Engineering

5. Review and Homework

the trp operon
The TRP Operon
  • The trp operon is also found in E. coli and other organisms.
  • Trp is tryptophan – an amino acid
    • coded by UGG
  • It is regulated so that when tryptophan is present in the environment, the operon is turned off.
trp operon
TRP operon

When tryptophan is not present in the cell’s environment, the trp operon is expressed.

When tryptophan is present in high levels, a conformation change occurs in the trp-repressor.

Tryptophan binds to the repressor

Repressor binds operator

Operon is turned off

question of the day jan 22
Question of the Day Jan 22

Crossing individuals with similar characteristics so these characteristics continue to appear in offspring is known as

A. genetic engineering

B. inbreeding

C. hybridization

D. electrophoresis

do now jan 22
DO NOW Jan 22

Researchers will often induce mutations in specific types of organisms.

How would researchers be able to cause mutations in an organism?

What is the ultimate goal of producing these mutations?

do now answered jan 22
DO NOW ANSWERED Jan 22

Most mutations are harmful.

On rare occasions, a beneficial mutation will appear and provide an organism with a characteristic not present in other members of its species.

Radiation and chemicals

The ultimate goal in all species is

Genetic Variation  Survival

agenda jan 22
AGENDA Jan 22

BIG Question: How do various breeding strategies benefit humans?

1. Question and DO NOW

2. HOMEWORK – DNA Molecules DUE FRIDAY Jan 24

3. Chapter 13 Genetic Engineering

4. Review and Homework

13 1 changing the living world
13-1: Changing the Living World
  • Humans use selective breeding to pass desired traits on to the next generation of organisms.
  • Takes advantage of naturally occurring genetic variations in plants, animals, and other organisms.
  • Nearly all domestic animals have been produced this way.
    • Horses, cats, farm animals, and crop plants
  • Every breed of dog is still the same species.
  • What does this mean?
  • Have been bred for thousands of years
    • Better hunters, retrievers, companions
    • Many phenotypic variations, behaviors, and levels of intelligence
question of the day jan 23
Question of the Day Jan 23

All of the following are acceptable reasons to perform selective breeding except

A. medical research

B. environmental cleanups

C. protein synthesis

D. producing the “perfect” human being

do now jan 23
DO NOW Jan 23

You wish to breed flowers that have a long stem and purple flowers.

The flowers available in your greenhouse are… Long and red, short and purple, short and red, long and yellow, short and blue, long and blue

Which cross or crosses would give you the best chance of success?

What factors should you consider?

do now answered jan 23
DO NOW ANSWERED Jan 23

Breeding the long/red with the long/blue will give you long stemmed flowers.

It may also give you purple flowers.

You can then cross this offspring with the short/purple flowers.

Factors – Dominant traits for height and color

Do these plants exhibit codominance or incomplete dominance?

Are any of the plants purebred/hybrids?

agenda jan 23
AGENDA Jan 23
  • BIG Question: How do various breeding strategies benefit humans?
  • 1. Question and DO NOW
  • 2. HOMEWORK – DNA Molecules DUE FRIDAY Jan 24
  • 3. Chapter 13 Genetic Engineering
    • Homework Check 13-1 Guided Reading
  • 4. Review and Homework
13 1 changing the living world1
13-1: Changing the Living World
  • Breeding strategies
    • selective: selecting a few individuals to serve as parents for the next generation
    • hybridization: a cross between dissimilar individuals
    • Best traits of both parents
    • Often stronger/hardier than parents
    • Combine disease resistance of one parent with food producing capacity of the other parent.
breeding strategies
Breeding Strategies

inbreeding: crossing individuals with similar characteristics so those characteristics will appear in the offspring

mutagens: agents, such as radiation and chemicals, which lead to mutations

a zonkey
A Zonkey!?!

Zebroid – cross between a zebra and an equine.

Charles Darwin recorded several of these animals in his travels during the mid 1800s

Mule – cross between a male donkey and a female horse

More patient, sure-footed, and longer-lived than a horse

Faster and more intelligent than donkeys

new kinds of organisms
New Kinds of Organisms
  • Bacteria
  • Able to treat millions of bacteria with radiation or chemicals at the same time.
  • Medical and environmental applications.
  • Plants
  • Drugs used to prevent chromosomal separation during meiosis.
  • Polyploidy very useful in plants.
  • Often fatal in animals
  • Crop plants
examples
EXAMPLES
  • Gamma Radiation has produced
    • Virus resistant strains of cocoa bean trees
    • Disease resistance bean plants
    • Red grapefruit and compounds found within it greatly assist in the absorption of medicinal drugs
    • Mutant strain of Dwarf rice that produces 4 times the yield of rice and its shorter height means it is less likely to fall over causing spoilage.
question of the day jan 24
Question of the Day Jan 24

Which statement is true about inbreeding?

A. Produces dissimilar organisms

B. Parent organisms have different traits

C. All of the offspring will be stronger than the parents

D. Offspring will be more susceptible to illness and health risks

do now jan 24
DO NOW Jan 24

Watch the following video clip.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gWur8Rbc3hc

IN YOUR NOTEBOOKS…

What is EUGENICS?

Do you agree or disagree with the principles of EUGENICS?

Explain your answer.

agenda jan 24
AGENDA Jan 24
  • BIG Question: How do various breeding strategies benefit humans?
  • 1. Question and DO NOW
  • 2. HOMEWORK – DNA Molecules TODAY
  • 3. Chapter 13 Genetic Engineering
  • 4. Review and Homework
    • Homework 13-2 Guided Reading Packet
    • DUE MONDAY Jan 27
question of the day jan 27
Question of the Day Jan 27

American botanist Luther Burbank produced a new modified crop that was later exported to

A. China

B. Ireland

C. Russia

D. Egypt

do now jan 27
DO NOW Jan 27

Classify the following organisms by the breeding techniques used to produce them.

How would you do this?

1. Cows that can produce the greatest amount of milk.

2. Tall oak trees that can survive a gypsy moth infestation.

3. Bean plants that can be grown in cold weather environments.

do now answered jan 27
DO NOW ANSWERED Jan 27
  • 1. Inbreeding
    • Select cows that have the highest milk yield and breed them.
  • 2. Hybridization
    • Identify specimens that are not preyed upon by gypsy moths and cross them with the tallest oak trees.
  • 3. Inbreeding
    • Identify plants that thrive in cold temperatures and breed them.
agenda jan 27
AGENDA Jan 27
  • BIG Question: How do scientists manipulate DNA?
  • 1. Question of the Day and DO NOW
  • 2. Restriction Enzymes Lab
    • 13-1 / 13-2 Packet Homework Check
  • 3. 13-2 Manipulating DNA
  • 4. Genetic Engineering Project
  • 5. Closing Thoughts and Homework
question of the day jan 28
Question of the Day Jan 28

Which statement regarding restriction enzymes is true?

A. Any restriction enzyme can cut any sequence of DNA

B. One restriction enzyme can cut DNA in any order

C. Restriction enzymes can only cut DNA once and are then unable to cut DNA a second time.

D. One restriction enzyme can cut DNA at one specific sequence of bases

do now jan 28
DO NOW Jan 28
  • Complete Restriction Enzymes Lab.
    • One cut per piece of paper.
    • Work with a partner
    • Join one cut section of DNA to a cut section of your partner’s DNA by the “sticky” ends.
    • Names on all DNA sequences
  • Answer questions for Homework.
agenda jan 28
AGENDA Jan 28
  • BIG Question: How do scientists manipulate DNA?
  • 1. Question of the Day and DO NOW
  • 2. Restriction Enzymes Lab
    • 13-2 Packet Homework Check
  • 3. 13-2 Manipulating DNA
  • 4. Closing Thoughts and Homework
13 2 genetic engineering
13-2: GeneticEngineering
  • Making changes in an organism’s DNA by substituting genes from other DNA
  • uses restrictionenzymes: proteins capable of cutting genes at specific DNA sequences
    • only cut the sequences they recognize
slide34
DNA fragments that are cut are then incorporated into the genetic material of a different cell.
  • called recombinant DNA: combined DNA from two different cells
dna extraction
DNA Extraction

Simple chemical procedures

Cells are opened.

Cell membranes are broken down.

Chemical solutions are added to remove proteins from the DNA.

DNA is separated and isolated from other cell parts.

gel electrophoresis separating dna
Gel Electrophoresis - Separating DNA

Mixture of DNA fragments placed at one end of a porous gel.

Electric voltage applied to the gel.

Negatively charged DNA molecules move to opposite end of gel.

Smaller fragments move faster and farther

Compares genomes of different organisms

Locate and identify specific genes.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3i-DxJ3oJzE

question of the day jan 29
Question of the DAY Jan 29

The “sticky” ends found on sequences of DNA can pair with

A. any sequence of DNA

B. identical sequences of DNA

C. complementary sequences of DNA

D. the restriction enzymes that cut them

do now jan 29
DO NOW Jan 29

Describe the process of Gel Electrophoresis.

agenda jan 29
AGENDA Jan 29

BIG Question: How do scientists manipulate DNA?

1. Question of the Day and DO NOW

2. Hand in Restriction Enzymes Lab

3. 13-2 Continued

4. Genetics Projects - Teams

5. Closing Thoughts and Homework

bioluminescence
Bioluminescence
  • Organisms that naturally produce light within their bodies.
  • Chemical compounds mix together to create a glow - Luciferase
    • Does not require nor generates much heat
    • “Cold Light”
  • Incandescence wastes a tremendous amount of energy to generate enough heat to produce light.
reading dna
Reading DNA

Unknown single strand of DNA, 4 nucleotide bases, and DNA Polymerase added into a test tube.

Different colored chemical dyes are attached to bases.

Colored strands separated using electrophoresis.

Order of colored bands identifies sequence of bases.

recombinant dna
Recombinant DNA

Sequences of DNA combined from two different sources.

DNA “synthesizers” produce short sequences of synthetic DNA

Enzymes splice together synthetic DNA and natural DNA

agenda jan 30
AGENDA Jan 30
  • BIG Question: What is biology?
  • 1. Mid-year Assessment
    • BENCHMARK TEST
    • The results of this test will not factor into your grade!
    • This is a tool that I will use to measure our progress through the course.
objectives jan 30
Objectives Jan 30

1. Complete the Biology BENCHMARK TEST.

2. Page 325 of your textbooks.

Define PCR in your notebook.

On a blank sheet of paper…

Draw the process of PCR in your textbook.

Use the correct colors to identify DNA.

Label your diagram.

Write down the steps in the process.

question of the day jan 31
Question of the DAY Jan 31

How double stranded DNA molecules are produced after 6 cycles of PCR?

A. 8

B. 16

C. 24

D. 32

pic of the day
PIC of the DAY

Fred and Frode playing in the snow…

Swedish brown bears in Guestrow, Germany.

do now jan 31
DO NOW Jan 31

Cross a heterozygous Tall, heterozygous yellow seeded pea plant with a short, heterozygous yellow seeded pea plant.

What percentage of the offspring will be tall and green seeded?

List the genotype and phenotype ratios.

honors agenda jan 31
HONORS - AGENDA Jan 31
  • BIG Question: How does a genetic disorder affect quality of life?
  • 1. Library Research DAY
    • HOMEWORK Check in library
    • Project topics/approvals
  • 2. Work with your teams.
  • 3. Include all of the necessary points of interest
  • 4.Be creative with this project.
  • 5. Grading Rubrics – You will receive individual grades for this project.
question of the day jan 311
Question of the DAY Jan 31

How double stranded DNA molecules are produced after 6 cycles of PCR?

A. 24

B. 32

C. 64

D. 128

pic of the day1
PIC of the DAY

Fred and Frode playing in the snow…

Swedish brown bears in Guestrow, Germany.

do now jan 311
DO NOW Jan 31

Cross a heterozygous Tall, heterozygous yellow seeded pea plant with a short, heterozygous yellow seeded pea plant.

What percentage of the offspring will be tall and green seeded?

List the genotype and phenotype ratios.

agenda jan 31
AGENDA Jan 31
  • BIG Question: What techniques are used to produce transgenic organisms?
  • 1. Question of the Day and DO NOW
  • 2. Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • 3. 13-3 Cell Transformation
  • 4. Review and Homework
    • QUIZ Tomorrow – Tuesday Feb 4
    • Sections 13-1 and 13-2
polymerase chain reaction
Polymerase Chain Reaction

PCR was developed by Kary Mullis in the 1980s

Produces many copies of DNA

STEPS of PCR

1. Add short sequences called primers to end of DNA

2. DNA heated to separate the two strands

3. Cooled to allow primers to bind to single strands

4. DNA Poly copies single strands

Process repeated

Special Poly enzyme found in a bacteria living in hot springs of Yellowstone National Park

pcr animation
PCR Animation

http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072556781/student_view0/chapter14/animation_quiz_6.html

question of the day feb 4
Question of the DAY Feb 4

When recombinant DNA is transformed in another cell, which of the following is true?

A. recombinant DNA is mutated

B. the cell is treated with antibiotics

C. the DNA becomes part of the transformed cell’s genome

D. the DNA forms its own nucleus

do now feb 4
DO NOW Feb 4

Page 327 of your textbooks

Draw Figure 13-9 in your notebooks.

Label the diagrams.

agenda feb 4
AGENDA Feb 4
  • BIG Question: What techniques are used to produce transgenic organisms?
  • 1. Question of the Day and DO NOW
  • 2. 13-3 Cell Transformation
  • 3. Homework Check
  • 4. Review and Homework
    • QUIZ Tomorrow – Tuesday Feb 4
    • Sections 13-1 and 13-2
13 3 cell transformation
13-3 Cell Transformation
  • What is transformation?
  • See Figure 13-9 Page 327
  • Plasmid – small, circular DNA molecule
    • Found naturally in some bacteria
  • Two essentials features
    • Contains a sequence to help promote plasmid replication.
    • Has a genetic marker to identify plasmid carrying bacteria from those that do not.
markers used for locating cells containing plasmids
Markers used for Locating Cells Containing Plasmids

Common marker – antibiotic resistant gene

DNA carrying resistance gene added to bacterial culture (millions of bacteria)

1 cell in a million will be transformed

Culture treated with antibiotic to kill bacteria

Only cells with resistance survive.

question of the day feb 6
Question of the DAY Feb 6

Recent advances in technology have allowed humans to use bacteria to produce proteins and other factors. The process required to do this is called

A. Reverse transcription

B. Cell Transformation

C. Cloning

D. Gel Electrophoresis

do now feb 6
DO NOW Feb 6

Answer the following question.

What components are required in order to perform a cycle of Polymerase Chain Reaction?

do now answer feb 6
DO NOW ANSWER Feb 6
  • The following components are needed to perform PCR.
    • 1. DNA sequence
    • 2. Primers
    • 3. Nucleotides
    • 4. DNA Polymerase
agenda feb 6
AGENDA Feb 6
  • BIG Question: What techniques are used to produce transgenic organisms?
  • 1. Question of the Day and DO NOW
  • 2. Finish 13-3 Cell Transformation
  • 3. Begin 13-4 Applications
  • 4. Review and Homework
    • STUDY GUIDES
  • CHAPTER 13 TEST – MONDAY FEB 10 or

THE NEXT FULL DAY WE ARE BACK IN SCHOOL!

transforming plant and animal cells
Transforming Plant and Animal Cells

PLANT CELLS

Uses a bacterium

Small plasmids are modified

Tumor producing gene removed plasmid

Foreign DNA is inserted

Recombinant plasmid now infects plant

In culture (naturally) or injected

Plasmid DNA integrated into chromosomes of transformed cells.

transforming plant and animal cells1
Transforming Plant and Animal Cells

ANIMALS

DNA directly injected into the nucleus of egg cell.

Enzymes help insert foreign DNA into chromosomes of cell.

Foreign DNA contains markers to identify transformed cells.

Gene replacement techniques allow scientists to remove/replace specific genes.

SEE Figure 13-11 Page 329

13 4 applications
13-4 Applications

Biotechnology – the application of organisms to develop and make useful products.

Transgenic Organisms - organisms that contain foreign DNA

transgenic bacteria, plants, and animals

transgenic organisms
Transgenic Organisms
  • Microorganisms – produce important substances for health and industry
    • Reproduce rapidly and easy to grow
    • Transformed E. coli produce human insulin
  • Animals – used to study genes and improve the world’s food supply
    • Mice with human immune systems
    • Food animals immune to diseases
  • Plants – genetically modified (GM) crops
    • Produce natural insecticides and resistant to weed-killing chemicals.
the future
The FUTURE
  • Microorganisms – substances to fight cancer
    • raw materials for synthetics and plastics
  • Animals – Provide human proteins
    • Sheep and pigs produce proteins in their milk
  • Plants – produce human antibodies, plastics, and foods resistant to rot
    • GM rice containing vitamin A already being grown in many nations struggling with hunger and poverty.
cloning
Cloning

Clone – a member of a population of genetically identical cells produced from a single cell.

1997 – Scottish scientist Ian Wilmut cloned “Dolly” the sheep.

Cows, pigs, and other mammals have laso been cloned.

wilmut s technique
Wilmut’s Technique
  • Nucleus of an egg cell removed
  • Fused with a cell from another adult
    • Requires electric shock
  • Fused cell begins to divide
  • Developing embryo placed in the reproductive system of a foster mother
  • Embryo develops normally
cloned organisms
Cloned Organisms

SAVING ENDANGERED SPECIES

Pyrenean Ibex

Native Habitat: Pyrenees Mountains in France and Spain

Status: Extinct - January 6, 2000

Cloning Attempt: 2009 – One clone born alive but died seven minutes later due to lung defects.

Dolly – “The world’s most famous sheep”

Born July 5, 1996

Died February 14, 2003

Causes: Progressive lung disease and severe arthritis

Remains on display at the Museum of Scotland

cloning humans
Cloning Humans
  • Highly CONTROVERSIAL!!!
    • Moral and ethical issues
  • The benefits of such procedures are questionable.
    • Many cloned animals suffer from genetic defects.
  • As technology improves… It will become a more pressing issue.