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This is about the Battle of Hastings

This is about the Battle of Hastings

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This is about the Battle of Hastings

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  1. This is about the Battle of Hastings But before we get to that, we need to know what went before

  2. The Battle of Hastings, 1066

  3. 1. Housecarls These were full time professional soldiers who were well trained & paid. The Saxon Army Harold had two types of soldiers in his army:

  4. 2. Fyrd These were part time, unpaid soldiers who were called up when the country was in danger. The Saxon Army Harold had two types of soldiers in his army:

  5. Spearmen Horsemen / Calvary Archers The Norman Army

  6. The Battlefield

  7. The Start of the Battle ‘The blowing of trumpets announced the start of the battle on both sides. Eager and brave Normans were the first to attack. The English threw javelins and missiles of all sorts, dealing out savage blows with their axes.’ William of Poitiers

  8. Bayeux Tapestry, The Normans attack the Saxon Shield Wall The Start of the Battle

  9. Early Stages of the Battle ‘The English were helped by the advantage of their high position which, massed tightly together they held without attempting to advance. The weapons which they fought with easily cut through shields and other protective armour.’ William of Poitiers

  10. Early Stages of the Battle Aha, I’m going to try me some French frogs legs!

  11. The Normans start running away ‘The Normans imaged their Duke was dead, but he rushed after them and showed his bared head. “Look at me!” he shouted, “I’m still alive.”

  12. He Lads, I have a plan! What was William’s Cunning Plan?

  13. When the Normans retreated a thousand Saxon Warriors left the protection of the Shield Wall to chase after the Normans. They were easily Killed by the Norman Horsemen!

  14. Normans pretend to run away • They then turn around and splatter the Saxons who are chasing after them!

  15. Second Stage: Cunning Plan! ‘They withdrew, pretending to turn in flight. Some thousand or more of the English rushed forward; suddenly the Normans turned their horses, cut off the force which was pursuing (chasing) them, encircled them and massacred (killed) them to the last man. Twice the Normans used this trick with equal success.’ William of Poitiers

  16. Third Stage: The Archers The Shield Wall was weakened but still strong, so William orders his Archers to aim high to distract the Saxons whilst he led another charge.

  17. Fourth Stage:The Shield Wall Collapses Harold’s brothers are killed.

  18. Final Stage: Death of Harold William sends in a hit squad of Normans to kill King Harold

  19. Guy of Amein, 1067 “Then it was with an arrow which was shot towards the sky, struck Harold above the right eye.” Final Stage: Death of Harold

  20. William of Mamesbury, 1125 “Receiving the fatal arrow from a distance, he died. One of the Norman soldiers with a sword then cut off his leg as he lay.” Final Stage: Death of Harold

  21. Or is that the way it was? • Left Detail: Harold's death scene drawn by Antoine Benoît 1729. From a photograph loaned by Dr David Hill & John McSween; reproduced by kind permission of the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris.

  22. Or this? • Right Detail: Engraving of Charles Stothard's drawing made in the early 19th century. Reproduced from 'The Battle of Hastings 1066' by Dr M.K. Lawson, Tempus publishing Ltd 2002.

  23. So what happened • Notice the discrepancies between Antoine Benoît's original drawing and the Stothard engraving made some 90 years later. Some historians now believe that the tapestry interpretation of King Harold II shown with an arrow in the eye is due to an error in judgement.

  24. Look again. The man with arrow in his eye is clearly alive • The label in Latin says • Here King Harold was killed. • Could Harold be the dead man on the horse? Some historians think so

  25. What about the symbolism? • It was common medieval iconography (symbolism) that a perjurer dies with a weapon through the eye, thus the tapestry suspiciously emphasises William's rightful claim to the throne, since Harold broke his oath to William and thus died with an arrow in his eye. Whether he actually died in this way remains a mystery and much debated

  26. Once King Harold and his brothers are dead the rest of the Saxon army runaway. Aftermath

  27. The Battlefield Today King Harold was killed here maybe ….

  28. Now for Homework

  29. You are to write a SHORT newspaper report • For either of these 2 papers • The Saxon Sun The Norman Star • It may be about one of these: • The death of Edward the Confessor • William’s claim to the throne • Or one of the others in the homework • Or you can choose your own

  30. The important points are .. • It must be short – no more than 150 words • These newspaper are like our Sun • They write in short sentences • They use words that are BIASED • In support of THEIR opinion