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Plant reproductive modes. Dominant stage of life cycle:. Moss: gametophyte (sporophyte dependent). Comparison of reproductive modes of plants:. Fern: Sporophyte (gametophyte independent). Seed plants: Sporophyte (gametophyte reduced). Reliance on water for reproduction.

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plant reproductive modes
Plant reproductive modes
  • Dominant stage of life cycle:
  • Moss: gametophyte (sporophyte dependent)
  • Comparison of reproductive modes of plants:
  • Fern: Sporophyte (gametophyte independent)
  • Seed plants: Sporophyte (gametophyte reduced)
  • Reliance on water for reproduction
  • Moss: sperm swims in water to egg in archegonium
  • Fern: sperm swims in water to egg in archegonium
  • Seed plants: none; pollen transport sperm to egg
  • Protection of embryo
  • Moss: ‘embryo’ slightly protected in archegonia
  • Fern: embryo slightly protected in archegonium
  • Seed plants: ‘embryo’ well protected in seed coat

How are new organisms produced?

plant reproductive modes1
Plant reproductive modes
  • Trends in floral specialization
  • Primitive flowers have many parts spirally arranged in whorls; radial symmetry (e.g. water lily)
  • Flowers

How are new organisms produced?

plant reproductive modes2
Plant reproductive modes
  • Trends in floral specialization
  • Separate flower parts become fused (often into a tube)
  • Flowers
  • Whorls are ‘lost’
  • Flowers show bilateral symmetry

How are new organisms produced?

plant reproductive modes3
Plant reproductive modes
  • Terminology
  • Perfectflower = contains both androecium (male) and gynoecium (female) whorls
  • Flowers
  • Imperfectflowers = missing one of ‘sex’ whorls
  • Staminate flower = male flowers (lack gynoecium whorl)
  • Pistillate flower = female flowers (lacs androecium whorl)

How are new organisms produced?

plant reproductive modes4
Plant reproductive modes
  • Terminology
  • Imperfect flowers can occur on the same plant (e.g. birch) or on different plants (e.g. aspen)
  • Flowers
  • Monoecious = separate staminate and pistillate flowers on the same plant
  • Dioecious = staminate and pistillate flowers on separate plants

How are new organisms produced?

plant reproductive modes5
Plant reproductive modes
  • Pollination
  • Pollination = process by which pollen is placed on stigma
  • Flowers
  • Early seed plants pollinated by wind (like pines)
  • Earliest flowering plants pollinated by insects; both flowering plants and insects diversified about same time (100 mybp)
  • Most numerous groups of flowering plants pollinated by bees
  • Bees locate flowers by odor and flower color
  • Bee-pollinated flowers tend to be blue or yellow
  • Many flowers have UV lines or bull’s eyes to indicate the location of nectaries

How are new organisms produced?

plant reproductive modes6
Plant reproductive modes
  • Some bees (and wasps) not given nectar or pollen ‘reward’
  • Flowers

How are new organisms produced?

plant reproductive modes7
Plant reproductive modes
  • Other common pollinators
  • Butterflies:
  • Flowers
  • Flowers have long, slender floral tubes
  • Flowers have ‘landing platform’

How are new organisms produced?

plant reproductive modes8
Plant reproductive modes
  • Other common pollinators
  • Moths:
  • Flowers
  • Flowers have long, slender floral tubes
  • Flowers have ‘landing platform’
  • White or yellow and heavily scented

How are new organisms produced?

plant reproductive modes9
Plant reproductive modes
  • Other common pollinators
  • Hummingbird:
  • Flowers
  • Flowers have long, slender floral tubes
  • Large amounts of nectar
  • Red color (conspicuous to birds but not insects)

How are new organisms produced?

plant reproductive modes10
Plant reproductive modes
  • Other common pollinators
  • Bats:
  • Flowers
  • Flowers white, heavily scented
  • Large amounts of nectar

How are new organisms produced?

plant reproductive modes11
Plant reproductive modes
  • Wind pollination
  • Flowers usually small, green, odorless
  • Flowers
  • Often grouped together in hanging catkins
  • Flowers emerge before leaves
  • Common in grasses

How are new organisms produced?

plant reproductive modes12
Plant reproductive modes
  • pollination
  • Outcrossing = movement of pollen between different flowers
  • Flowers
  • Outcrossing prevent inbreeding in plants
  • Factors that promote outcrossing:
  • Have separate male and female plants (dioecious plants)
  • Monoecious plants mature staminate and pistillate flowers at different times
  • Plants with perfect flowers mature stamen and pistils at different times (= dichogamous)

How are new organisms produced?

plant reproductive modes13
Plant reproductive modes
  • Factors that promote outcrossing:
  • Flowers
  • Genetic self-incompatibility
  • Gametophytic: if either allele of stigma matches allele of pollen that pollen’s tube is blocked
  • Sporophytic: if any allele of pollen matches an allele of stigma no pollen tubes are produced

How are new organisms produced?

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