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Saving for a Rainy Day. Interest Grabber. Section 8-1. Suppose you earned extra money by having a part-time job. At first, you might be tempted to spend all of the money, but then you decide to open a bank account. 1. What are the benefits of having a bank account?

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saving for a rainy day
Saving for a Rainy Day

Interest Grabber

Section 8-1

  • Suppose you earned extra money by having a part-time job. At first, you might be tempted to spend all of the money, but then you decide to open a bank account.
  • 1. What are the benefits of having a bank account?
  • 2. What do you have to do if you need some of this money?
  • 3. What might your body do when it has more energy than it needs to carry out its activities?
  • 4. What does your body do when it needs energy?
slide2
Chapter 7 Nutrition

Chapter 8 Prentice Hall text

adenosine triphosphate atp
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
  • Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) is considered by biologists to be the energy currency of life.
  • It is the high-energy molecule that stores the energy we need to do just about everything we do.
  • As food (glucose) in the cells is gradually oxidized (broken-down), the released energy is used to re-form the ATP so that the cell always maintains a supply of this essential molecule.
adenosine triphosphate atp6
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)

The energy currency of life.

  • Chemical energy (Fuel) stored and release for the body
  • Cells Use to store and release energy
  • 3 parts:

Adenine

Ribose

3 Phosphate groups

slide8

Figure 8-3 Comparison of ADP and ATP to a Battery

Section 8-1

ADP

ATP

Energy

Energy

Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) + Phosphate

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

Partially

charged

battery

Fully

charged

battery

slide9

Figure 8-3 Comparison of ADP and ATP to a Battery

Section 8-1

ADP

ATP

Energy

Energy

Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) + Phosphate

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

Partially

charged

battery

Fully

charged

battery

slide10
ATP

ATP Synthesis

atp cycle13
ATP Cycle

Hydrolysis of ATP

H20 + ATP ADP + P + ENERGY

Dehydration Synthesis of ATP

ADP + P + ENERGY H20 + ATP

nutrition15

“Not to eat”

Nutrition

The activities by which living things obtain or (create food) and process it for growth and repair of their body cells.

Two Types:

Autotrophic Nutrition

Heterotrophic Nutrition

slide16

Types of Nutrition

Section 8-1

Autotrophs: organisms that make their own food.

**Photosynthetic: converts inorganic materials (H2O, CO2) into an organic usable form (glucose)

Heterotroph: must obtain their nutrients from their environment

**cannot convert sunlight

is algae a plant
Is algae a plant?
  • What organisms produce the most free atmospheric (usable) oxygen?
is algae a plant18
Is algae a plant?
  • Algae, like land plants, capture the sun’s energy and support the food web that leads to fish and shellfish. 
is algae a plant19
Is algae a plant?
  • They occur in a size range from tiny microscopic cells floating in the water column (phytoplankton) to large mats of visible “macroalgae” that grow on bottom sediments.
75 of the earth oxygen
75% of the earth oxygen

Global Biomass: < 1% of the plant biomass on earth

BUT responsible for nearly half the net photosynthesis of the biosphere!

what is phytoplankton
What is phytoplankton?
  • Phytoplankton: (from the Greek words phytos = plant and planktos = wanderer)
  • Phytoplankton, microscopic plant life that floats freely in the lit surface waters, may alter the color of the water.
what is phytoplankton22

When a great number of the microscopic plants are concentrated in an area, the color of the ocean surface will change.

  • This is called a "bloom." This photograph shows such a change in color.
What is phytoplankton?
slide24

Nutrition

Autotrophic

Heterotrophic

  • Autotrophs can make their own
  • Food (Glucose)
  • Plant, algae, and some bacteria
  • 2 types
  • Chemo synthesisPhotosynthesis
  • Uses chemicals

Like Sulfur

and Nitrogen to

Make its’ own food

  • Re: Ingest, digest, egest
  • All Animal and fungi,
  • some bacteria
  • Types of Digestion:
  • Mechanical/physical
    • using teeth to chew
  • Chemical
  • using enzymes+ acids
  • Where it Takes place:
    • Intracellular Dig
    • Extracellular Dig
  • Uses sunlight, CO2

And water to create sugar.

  • Uses 2 reactions

a. Light reaction

b. Dark reaction

why is it important
Why is it important?

Microscopic plant life is at the base of the marine food web and is the primary food and energy source for the ocean ecosystem. Phytoplankton converts sunlight with the help of the green pigment chlorophyll.

The chlorophyll pigments in the plants absorb light, and the plants themselves scatter light.

Together, these processes change the color of the ocean as seen by an observer looking downward into the sea.

Very productive water with a lot of plankton appears blue-green. Very pure water appears deep-blue, almost black.

slide27

8–2 Photosynthesis: An Overview

Section 8-2

A. Investigating Photosynthesis

1. Van Helmont’s Experiment

2. Priestley’s Experiment

3. Jan Ingenhousz

B. The Photosynthesis Equation

C. Light and Pigments

slide28

Wavelengths effects on Photosynthesis

  • Which Wavelengths are the best for photosynthetic plants?
  • Which Wavelength is the worst?

http://seawifs.gsfc.nasa.gov/SEAWIFS.html

slide29

Absorption of Light by

Chlorophyll a and Chlorophyll b

Section 8-2

Chlorophyll b

Chlorophyll a

V

B

G

Y

O

R

slide30

Wavelengths effects on Photosynthesis

http://seawifs.gsfc.nasa.gov/SEAWIFS.html

trapping energy
Trapping Energy

Interest Grabber

Section 8-2

  • Have you ever used a solar-powered calculator? No matter where you go, as long as you have a light source, the calculator works. You never have to put batteries in it.
slide32

Interest Grabber continued

Section 8-2

  • 1. A solar-powered calculator uses solar cells that are found in rows along the top of the calculator. Into what kind of energy is the light energy converted so that the calculator works?
  • 2. Recall that plants use light energy from the sun to make food. Into what kind of energy is the light energy converted by plants?
  • 3. Most plants, no matter what size or shape they are, have some parts that are green. Which parts of a plant are usually green?
  • 4. What does the green color have to do with the plant’s ability to convert light energy into the energy found in the food it makes?
slide34

Section Outline

Section 8-3

8–3 The Reactions of Photosynthesis

A. Inside a Chloroplast

B. Electron Carriers

C. Light-Dependent Reactions

D. The Calvin Cycle

E. Factors Affecting Photosynthesis

slide35

Do Now

Section 8-3

includes

takes place in

uses

use

take place in

to produce

to produce

of

slide36

Light-

dependent

Reactions,

photolysis

Energy from

sunlight

Grana

ATP

NADPH

O2

Chloroplasts

Do Now

Section 8-3

Photosynthesis

includes

Light independent reaction

, dark reaction

,Calvin cycle

takes place in

uses

use

take place in

Stroma

ATP

NADPH

to produce

to produce

of

High-energy

sugars

slide37

Photosynthesis: Reactants and Products

Light Energy

Chloroplast

Sugars + O2

CO2 + H2O

factors affecting the rate of photosynthesis

Temperature

  • Light Intensity
  • Carbon Dioxide Concentration

Factors Affecting the rate of Photosynthesis

chlorophyll
Chlorophyll

Chlorophyll a:The green photosynthetic pigment common to all photosynthetic organisms.

Chlorophyll b:An accessory chlorophyll found in green algae and plants.

Chlorophyll c:An accessory chlorophyll found in some protistans.

slide42
is the process of using inorganic reactants to create organic molecules. It is composed of two major reactions.

Photosynthesis

  • The light Independent reaction:
      • aka photolysis, photochemical reaction
      • Occurs in the Grana
  • The Light Independent reaction:
      • aka Calvin Cycle, Dark Reaction
      • Occurs in the Stroma
slide43
___+___+______+___

12 (H2O)

6(CO2)

Oxygen (6O2)

AKA

Glucose

C6H1206

slide44
___+___+______+___

Products

Reactants

Oxygen (6O2)

AKA

Glucose

6(CO2)

12 (H2O)

C6H1206

light reaction
Light Reaction

Oxygen (6O2)

Chloroplast

I am out of here!

12 WATER molecules

(H2O)

12 Hydrogen

12 Hydrogen

AKA

Photolysis

NADPH

+ ATP

(This all occurs

In the Grana.)

slide46

(This all occurs in the Stroma.)

Dark

Reaction

“Calvin Cycle”

“Light

Independent

Reaction”

NADPH

+ATP

12 Hydrogen

12 Hydrogen

Carbon Fixation

6(CO2)

C6H1206

6(H20)

AKA

Glucose

the food factory
The Food Factory

4

3

1

?

?

?

2

*6*

5

slide48

water

CO2

Sugars

O2

Figure 8-7 Photosynthesis: An Overview

Section 8-3

Chloroplast

Chloroplast

NADP+

ADP + P

Light-

Dependent

Reactions

Calvin

Cycle

ATP

NADPH

slide49

water

CO2

Sugars

O2

Figure 8-7 Photosynthesis: An Overview

Section 8-3

Chloroplast

Chloroplast

NADP+

ADP + P

Light-

Dependent

Reactions

Calvin

Cycle

ATP

NADPH

slide50

Figure 8-10 Light-Dependent Reactions

Section 8-3

Hydrogen

Ion Movement

Chloroplast

Photosystem II

ATP synthase

Inner

Thylakoid

Space

Thylakoid

Membrane

Stroma

Electron

Transport Chain

Photosystem I

ATP Formation

slide51

Figure 8-11 Calvin Cycle

Section 8-3

CO2 Enters the Cycle

Energy Input

ChloropIast

5-Carbon

Molecules

Regenerated

6-Carbon Sugar

Produced

Sugars and other compounds

video 1
Video 1

Video 1

  • Click the image to play the video segment.

ATP Formation

video 2
Video 2

Video 2

  • Click the image to play the video segment.

Photosynthesis

video 3
Video 3

Video 3

  • Click the image to play the video segment.

Light-Dependent Reactions, Part 1

video 4
Video 4

Video 4

  • Click the image to play the video segment.

Light-Dependent Reactions, Part 2

video 5
Video 5

Video 5

  • Click the image to play the video segment.

Calvin Cycle

summary of some key points in photosynthesis

1. Photosynthesis is the major energy-storing process of life (light energy stored as chemical energy in organic compounds)2. CO2 and H2O are raw materials3. Products are sugar and oxygen4. Light energy is absorbed by pigments and drives the reactions of photosynthesis5. ATP and NADPH2 are formed during the light reactions6. Oxygen of water is liberated as a gas7. Steps of Calvin Cycle are controlled by enzymes.8. Light reactions occur in the granaDark reactions occur in the stroma

Summary of some key points in Photosynthesis

light reaction58
Light Reaction,
  • OVERALL - use of light energy to generate two high-energy compounds, ATP and NADPH2
  • ATP
  • When light is absorbed by chlorophyll, some of its electrons become excited and leap out of the chlorophyll molecule, grabbed by energy receptors.b) The energy of these electrons is used to make ATP from ADP + Pi
  • 2) NADPH2
  • When light is absorbed by chlorophyll, some of its electrons become excited and leap out of the chlorophyll molecule, grabbed by energy receptors.b) These electrons are then used to convert NADP+ to NADPH2
  • 3) The lost electrons in chlorophyll are replaced from electrons of oxygen in water; When e- are removed from water, oxygen is produced as a by-product of photosynthesis, water is split -> 2H+ (protons) + 2e- + 1/2 O2 (gas) (Note - NADP+ + 2e- + 2H+ <-> NADPH2)
nadph
NADPH

nicotine adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP+) 

A substance to which electrons are transferred from photosystem I during photosynthesis;

the addition of the electrons reduces NADP, which acquires a hydrogen ion to form NADPH, which is a storage form of energy that can be transferred to the Calvin Cycle for the production of carbohydrate.

See links

dark reaction
Dark Reaction

Carbon-Fixing Reactions are also known as the Dark Reactions (or Light Independent Reactions).

  • Carbon dioxide enters single-celled and aquatic autotrophs through no specialized structures, diffusing into the cells.
  • Land plants must guard against drying out (desiccation) and so have evolved specialized structures known as stomata to allow gas to enter and leave the leaf.
  • The Calvin Cycle occurs in the stroma of chloroplasts (where would it occur in a prokaryote?). Carbon dioxide is captured by the chemical ribulose biphosphate (RuBP). RuBP is a 5-C chemical. Six molecules of carbon dioxide enter the Calvin Cycle, eventually producing one molecule of glucose.
plants review
Plants review:
  • Vascular Tissue:
    • Xylem, transports water
    • Phloem, transports food
  • Gas intake:
    • Guard cells open forming STOMATES
    • Lenticels in bark
a look into the future
A Look Into the Future

Interest Grabber

Section 8-3

  • It is 100 years in the future and you are a research scientist. An enormous volcanic eruption has recently sent huge quantities of dust and ash into the atmosphere.
  • Working with a partner, make a list of how this event will affect each of the following:
  • 1. photosynthesis
  • 2. plant life
  • 3. animal life
  • 4. human societies
slide68

Figure 8-5 Chlorophyll Light Absorption

Section 8-2

Absorption of Light by

Chlorophyll a and Chlorophyll b

Chlorophyll b

Chlorophyll a

V

B

G

Y

O

R

slide69

Figure 8-10 Light-Dependent Reactions

Section 8-3

Hydrogen

Ion Movement

Chloroplast

Photosystem II

ATP synthase

Inner

Thylakoid

Space

Thylakoid

Membrane

Stroma

Electron

Transport Chain

Photosystem I

ATP Formation

slide70

Figure 8-11 Calvin Cycle

Section 8-3

CO2 Enters the Cycle

Energy Input

ChloropIast

5-Carbon

Molecules

Regenerated

6-Carbon Sugar

Produced

Sugars and other compounds

slide71

CO2

Sugars

O2

Figure 8-7 Photosynthesis: An Overview

Section 8-3

water

Light

Chloroplast

Chloroplast

NADP+

ADP + P

Light-

Dependent

Reactions

Calvin

Cycle

ATP

NADPH

video contents
Video Contents

Videos

  • Click a hyperlink to choose a video.
  • ATP Formation
  • Photosynthesis
  • Light-Dependent Reactions, Part 1
  • Light-Dependent Reactions, Part 2
  • Calvin Cycle
internet
Internet

Go Online

  • ATP activity
  • Interactive test
  • For links on Calvin cycle, go to www.SciLinks.org and enter the Web Code as follows: cbn-3082.
  • For links on photosynthesis, go to www.SciLinks.org and enter the Web Code as follows: cbn-3083.
section 1 answers
Section 1 Answers

Interest Grabber Answers

  • 1. What are the benefits of having a bank account?
  • To save money and earn interest.
  • 2. What do you have to do if you need some of this money?
  • Go to the bank and take out the money you need.
  • 3. What might your body do when it has more energy than it needs to carry out its activities?
  • Students will likely say that the body stores the energy.
  • 4. What does your body do when it needs energy?
  • Student answers may include that energy is gotten from food.
section 2 answers
Section 2 Answers

Interest Grabber Answers

  • 1. A solar-powered calculator uses solar cells that are found in rows along the top of the calculator. Into what kind of energy is the light energy converted so that the calculator works?
  • They convert light energy into electrical energy.
  • 2. Recall that plants use light energy from the sun to make food. Into what kind of energy is the light energy converted by plants?
  • Plants convert light energy into chemical energy.
  • 3. Most plants, no matter what size or shape they are, have some parts that are green. Which parts of a plant are usually green?
  • Leaves are green, as are some stems.
  • 4. What does the green color have to do with the plant’s ability to convert light energy into the energy found in the food it makes?
  • The green color is the pigment chlorophyll, which absorbs light energy from the sun and converts it to chemical energy in the process of photosynthesis.
section 3 answers
Section 3 Answers

Interest Grabber Answers

  • Working with a partner, make a list of how this event will affect each of the following:
  • 1. photosynthesis The rate of photosynthesis will decrease due to reduced sunlight.
  • 2. plant life Plants will grow more slowly or die off due to decreased rate of photosynthesis.
  • 3. animal life Animal populations will decrease after a while due to fewer plants for herbivores to eat. Fewer herbivores will eventually result in fewer carnivores. Also, less oxygen will be available.
  • 4. human societies Human societies will have to adjust their eating habits as some food species die out.