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Finalizing Scope (functions/level of automation). Finalizing scope in terms of functions and level of automation for each function overlaps with and requires information from: Defining target deployment environment Defining implementation alternatives e.g., build vs. buy

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finalizing scope functions level of automation
Finalizing Scope (functions/level of automation)
  • Finalizing scope in terms of functions and level of automation for each function overlaps with and requires information from:
    • Defining target deployment environment
    • Defining implementation alternatives
      • e.g., build vs. buy
  • General Approach for including/excluding functions:
    • Functions deemed mandatory are in scope.
    • Include as many important functions as budget and schedule allow
    • Desirable features: delay to later ‘release’ of system
  • Strategic plan:
    • Often, genesis of a new system is organization’s strategic plan
    • Functions that align with strategic plan typically get included in scope
finalizing scope functions level of automation1
Finalizing Scope (functions/level of automation)
  • Need to revisit feasibility analysis. Now have much more information to work with.
  • Economic feasibility
    • What set of functions give us an optimal return on investment?
    • What set of functions can we afford?
  • Schedule and resource feasibility
    • What can be implemented in time available?
    • What can be implemented given human and other resources?
  • Technological feasibility
    • What can be practically implemented given state of technology and organizations knowledge and experience?
  • Operational, organizational, and cultural feasibility
    • What can our organization handle/accept?
    • How much change is required?
application deployment environment
Application Deployment Environment
  • What is the technical environment in which system will be implemented?
  • Deployment environment consists primarily of:
    • Hardware
    • Networks
    • System software
    • Development software
    • Development methodology and tools
  • Technical requirements define constraints regarding deployment environment
  • Organization’s current environment/standards typically drive deployment options
range of application types
Range of Application Types
  • Stand-alone applications on mini- and personal computers
  • Online interactive applications
  • Distributed applications
  • Web-based applications
hardware system software and networks
Hardware, System Software, and Networks
  • Computers range from handheld to super computers
  • Operating systems range from Windows to Unix
  • Database management systems range from Oracle to SQL Server to IBM DB2
  • Software components and standards range from Java 2 Enterprise (J2EE) to Microsoft .NET
  • Web servers range from IIS to Apache
deployment environment characteristics to consider
Deployment Environment Characteristics to Consider
  • Compatibility with technical requirements:
    • Volume of transactions, location of users, etc.
  • Compatibility among hardware and system software
  • Required interfaces to external systems
  • Conformity with IT strategic plan and architecture plans
  • Cost and schedule
development tools
Development Tools
  • Development environment – programming languages, CASE tools, and other software used to develop application software
  • Java and Visual Studio .NET are examples
  • Application deployment environment decisions limit development tool choices
    • Operating system environment
    • Database management system (DBMS)
    • Distributed software standard
development and system software environments
Development and System Software Environments
  • Consists of standards and tools used in an organization to develop systems
  • Important considerations
    • Language environment and expertise
      • Java, C, etc,
    • Existing CASE tools and methodologies
      • RUP and Rose, Information Engineering
    • Required interfaces to other systems
    • Operating system environment
      • Unix, Linux, OS390, NT
    • Database management system environment
      • Oracle, DB2, SQL Server
choosing implementation alternatives
Choosing Implementation Alternatives
  • Many variations on obtaining a system
    • Facilities management solutions
    • Packaged, turnkey, ERP software systems
    • Custom software development
    • In-house development

Implementation Alternatives


Salesforce. com




Off the shelf packages

Simply Accounting

We build, consultants build or blended approach

identifying criteria for selection
IdentifyingCriteria for Selection
  • Comparisons difficult
  • Different proposed systems have strengths in different areas
  • Need a consistent framework for comparison of alternatives
    • Criteria
    • Weights
    • Scores
  • Three areas to consider
    • General requirements
    • Functional requirements
    • Technical requirements
evaluation framework
Evaluation Framework

Weight – importance of criteria vs other criteria

Alternatives considered

Evaluation Criteria





Score * Weight


general requirements
General Requirements
  • General requirements include considerations that are important but not directly associated with the computer system itself.
  • Related to feasibility assessment – alternative must be feasible to be chosen
  • General requirements examples:
    • Performance record of the provider
    • Level of technical support from the provider
    • Warranties and support services (from outside vendor)
    • Availability of experienced staff
    • Development cost
    • Expected value of benefits
    • Length of time (schedule) until deployment
    • Requirements for internal expertise
    • Organizational impacts (retraining, skill levels)
technical requirements
Technical Requirements
  • Constraints under which system must operate
  • Defined by technical requirements identified during information gathering
  • Categories:
    • Performance (response time/throughput, etc)
    • Security and Control
    • User interface (ease of use, etc.)
    • Service (number/location of users to be supported)
    • Operating environment
    • etc.
functional requirements
Functional Requirements
  • Need to evaluate alternatives based on how well they meet functional requirements.
  • Use expanded event table
making the selection
Making the Selection
  • After rating alternatives, choice can be made
  • Scores are tabulated and compared
contracting with vendors
Contracting with Vendors
  • Generate a Request for Proposal
presenting results and making decisions
Presenting Results and Making Decisions
  • Compile, organize, and present the alternatives and critical issues in an easy-to-understand but complete manner
  • Final choice generally made by executive steering committee
  • Format of documentation and presentation style varies with organization