Land and water use
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Land And Water Use. Part 4. Urban Land Development. Urban Development. Planned Development 76 million residential buildings and 5 million commercial buildings in the US Use 1/3 of all energy and 2/3 of all electricity consumed in US. Urban Development. The Green Approach. Urbanization.

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Urban development
Urban Development

  • Planned Development

    • 76 million residential buildings and 5 million commercial buildings in the US

    • Use 1/3 of all energy and 2/3 of all electricity consumed in US


Urban development1
Urban Development

  • The Green Approach


Urbanization
Urbanization

  • Pros

  • Cons



Federal highway system
Federal Highway System

  • 160,000 miles of roadway

  • Federal highways receive substantial federal funding but state owned, built, operated

  • Federal highway tax

    • 18¢ gas tax

    • 25¢ diesel tax

    • Tax on heavy vehicles


Federal highway system1
Federal Highway System

  • Benefits

  • Impacts on Environment



National parks
National Parks

  • 1,100 national parks in world

    • Largely unprotected due to cost

  • 84 million acres in US

    • Alaska = 16% of entire system




Relevant laws
Relevant Laws

  • National Park Service Act 1916

    • Establishes national park service

  • Wild and Scenic Rivers Act 1968

    • Ensures protection of river’s unique environment

    • Preserves select rivers

    • 4 rivers in NC


Wildlife refuges
Wildlife Refuges

  • Developed to protect wildlife during times of crisis

  • Managed by US Fish and Wildlife Service


Wetlands
Wetlands

  • High plant productivity

  • High biodiversity

  • 50% of US wetlands have been altered or destroyed

    • Urbanization – 10%

    • Agriculture – 90%

  • 1/3 of all endangered species spend part of lifecycle in wetlands


Wetlands1
Wetlands

  • Types of wetlands

    • Fen:

    • Bog:

    • Marsh:

    • Swamp:


Wetlands2
Wetlands

  • Wetland Services



Conservation options
Conservation Options

  • Preservation

  • Remediation

  • Mitigation

  • Restoration


Principles in land conservation
Principles in Land Conservation

  • Protect biodiversity, habitats, and function through monitoring

  • Adopt a user pay approach

  • Require responsibility of any user who damages or alters public lands


Principles in land conservation1
Principles in Land Conservation

  • Reduce road building

  • Rely on more sustainable tree-cutting methods

  • Reduce fragmentation