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Specific Learning Disabilities Group presentation. ECED 2060. What is a learning disability?. A learning disability is a disorder that interferes with the ability to learn efficiently and effectively.

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what is a learning disability
What is a learning disability?
  • A learning disability is a disorder that interferes with the ability to learn efficiently and effectively.
  • It is estimated that 5% to 20% of school-aged children in the United States have some sort of learning disability.
  • It is also estimated that of the children who have a learning disability, 60% to 80% have reading as their main area of need.
  • Further, it is estimated that the prevalence of specific learning disability among children who are eligible for IDEA (ages 6 – 21) is 52.4%.
basic information continued
Basic Information continued …
  • Learning disabilities affect boys four times more often than girls. (WHY?)
  • Learning disability is not the same as mental retardation. Many children with LD are very bright.
  • The term “learning disabilities” was coined by Samuel Kirk, an educator, in 1963. His concept of learning disabilities was defined by delays, deviations, and performance discrepancies in basic academic subjects (math, reading, spelling, writing) and speech and language problems not attributable to mental retardation.
idea definition
IDEA definition:

A disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, which may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematical calculations. The term includes such conditions as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia. The term does not include children who have learning disabilities which are primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities, of mental retardation, of emotional disturbance, or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage.

dsm definition
DSM definition:
  • Diagnostic criteria for reading disorder:
    • Reading achievement as measured by individually administered standardized tests of reading accuracy or comprehension is substantially below that expected given the person’s chronological age, measured intelligence, and age-appropriate education.
    • The disturbance above significantly interferes with academic achievement or activities of daily living that require reading skills
    • If sensory deficit is present, the reading difficulties are in excess of those usually associated with it.
slide6
DSM
  • Diagnostic criteria for Mathematics Disorder:
    • Mathematical ability, as measured by individually administered standardized tests, is substantially below that expected given the person’s chronological age, measured intelligence, and age appropriate education
    • The disturbance above significantly interferes with academic achievement or activities of daily living that require mathematical ability.
    • If a sensory deficit is present, the difficulties in mathematical abilities are in excess of those usually associated with it.
slide7
DSM
  • Diagnostic criteria for disorder of written expression
    • Writing skills, as measured by individually administered standardized tests (or functional assessments of writing skills) are substantially below those expected given the person’s chronological age, measured intelligence, and age-appropriate education.
    • The disturbance above significantly interferes with academic achievement or activities of daily living that require the composition of written texts (e.g., writing grammatically correct sentences and organized paragraphs.
    • If a sensory deficit is present, the difficulties in writing skills are in excess of those usually associated with it.
common characteristics of learning disabilities
Common characteristics of learning disabilities:
  • Specific academic skills deficits:
    • Basic reading skills (learning letter names and sounds, blending, applying phonetic and structured analysis)
    • Reading comprehension
    • Writing
    • Written expression
    • Spelling
    • Mathematical calculation
    • Mathematical reasoning
characteristics possible
Characteristics … (possible …)
  • Perceptual motor impairments:
    • Difficulty distinguishing shapes and sizes
    • Lack established handedness
    • Letter, word, number reversals
    • Difficulty with fine motor skills
      • Writing
      • Coloring
      • Cutting
characteristics possible common
Characteristics … Possible …Common …
  • Memory and thinking disorders:
    • Deficient in memory strategies
    • Haphazard in approaches to learning
    • Poor language skills, which hinder memory
    • Difficulty with short-term auditory and visual memory
    • Lack of awareness of skills and strategies needed to solve problems and solve tasks
characteristics
Characteristics …
  • Speech and language disorders:
    • Delayed language development
    • Difficulty with grammar (syntax), meaning (semantics), or social use (pragmatics) of language
  • Attention Disorders
    • Difficulty concentrating
    • Difficulty remaining on task
    • Rarely finish what is started
    • Jump from one activity to another
    • Easily distracted
common characteristics
Common characteristics:
  • Hyperactivity
    • Difficulty sitting still
    • Constantly in motion
    • Fidgety
    • Driven by an “inner motor”
  • Impulsiveness
    • Act without thinking
    • Poor planning and organizational skills
    • Respond quickly but make many errors
    • Lack self-regulation skills
even more characteristics possible
Even more characteristics (possible) …
  • Emotional liability
    • Moody
    • Often isolated or rejected by peers
    • Low self-esteem
    • More likely to violate social norms
    • Inappropriate ways to get attention
    • Elicit more negative reactions from others
    • Lacking in social cognition skills
    • Difficulty reading non-verbal cues
    • Difficulty with motivation
    • Passive rather than active learner
characteristics almost done
Characteristics, almost done
  • General Coordination Deficits
    • Clumsy
    • Difficulty with fine and gross motor skills (tying shoes, running, hopping, skipping)
    • Difficulty with depth perception
  • Neurological Soft Signs
    • Poor fine motor coordination, balance, tactile discrimination.
    • May have strabismus
    • Poor visual-motor coordination
characteristics the end of
Characteristics (the end of …)
  • Miscellaneous others:
    • Forgetfulness
    • Long time to complete tasks and assignments
    • Sloppiness in work
    • Difficulty working independently
    • Inattentiveness
    • Trouble switching between activities
    • Impulsive
    • Low tolerance for frustration
    • Daydreaming
    • Sad, angry
possible causes of learning disabilities
Possible causes of learning disabilities …
  • Neurological factors: may be caused by certain irregularities in brain development
  • Maturational delay
  • Genetic factors: a person is more likely to have learning disabilities if someone in his or her family also has learning disabilities.
causes possible
Causes, possible
  • Environmental factors: sensory deprivation; head trauma; diseases; malnutrition; lead poisoning; food additives; radiation; fluorescent lighting; stress …
  • Perinatal insults or conditions: maternal smoking, drinking, use of illicit drugs; exposure to infections; trauma during birth; low birth weight; anoxia; prematurity; use of forceps
  • No cause is sure. Mostly the cause is unknown.
disorders in the category
Disorders in the category:
  • Dyslexia
  • Dyscalculia
  • Dysgraphia
  • Central Auditory Processing Disorder
  • Nonverbal Learning Disability
  • Dyspraxia
  • Verbal Perceptual Deficits
  • Vision Motor Deficits
  • Language Disorders (Aphasia or dysphasia)
videos you tube can you dig it
Videos. You Tube. Can you dig it?
  • The Power Of Dyslexia about Famous Dyslexics
  • Dyscalculia 1 2 3 many
local resources for families and educators
Local Resources for Families and Educators
  • Child and Family Tennessee, Knoxville: http://www.child-family.org/
  • Family Resource Center, Vanderbilt Children’s Hospital: http://www.vanderbiltchildrens.org/interior.php?mid=560
  • International Dyslexia Association, Tennessee Branch: http://www.tn-interdys.org/
  • Learning Disabilities Association of Tennessee: http://www.learningdisabilities-tn.org/
  • Parent-Child Services Group, Inc.: http://www.parent-childservices.com/
  • Tennessee Center for Study and Treatment of Dyslexia: http://dyslexia.mtsu.edu/
  • Tennessee Voices for Children, Middle Tennessee: http://www.tnvoices.org/index.php?q=es
national resources for families and educators
National Resources for Families and Educators
  • National Center for Learning Disabilities: http://www.ncld.org/
  • Learning Disabilities Association of America: http://www.ldanatl.org/
dysgraphia
Dysgraphia
  • Write your name and address with your non-preferred hand.
  • Write your name in mirror images with both hands at once.
  • Write your name at the same time with both hands in the same direction.
  • Which was the easiest?