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Paranal Observatory. VLTI.  ( µm). 1. 10. VLT(I) Instrumentation. An extensive  - Coverage. VLT Instrumentation. An extensive  -  / Coverage. FORS-1 & FORS-2. young brown dwarf I band - TW5 system. Keck + LRIS Seeing ~ 0.55”. VLT + FORS-1 Seeing ~ 0.6”.

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vlt i instrumentation

VLTI

 (µm)

1

10

VLT(I) Instrumentation

An extensive  - Coverage

vlt instrumentation
VLT Instrumentation

An extensive  -  / Coverage

fors image quality stability

young brown dwarf

I band - TW5 system

Keck + LRIS

Seeing ~ 0.55”

VLT + FORS-1

Seeing ~ 0.6”

FORS Image Quality & Stability
  • Image Quality Telescope driven

Best image obtained (HR mode)

      • 0.18” (integration time: a few seconds)
      • 0.25” (integration time: several minutes)

Ellipticity distribution

Red: uncorrected

Blue: corrected

  • Image Stability exceptional
isaac spectroscopic sensitivity

ISAAC Spectroscopic Sensitivity

z =3.2 galaxy “rotation” (V ~ 700 km/s)

OIII lines; 6 hr exposure; 0”.4 seeing

uves highly sensitive r 10 5 spectrometer
UVES: highly sensitive R~105 Spectrometer

Be (0.313 µm) abundance in stars of a Globular Cluster (V=16(!))

slide13

Visible Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph (VIMOS)

Built by LAM, OHP & OMP (F), IRA,, IFCTR & OAC (I) and ESO

slide14

First VIMOS Light

Antennae Nebula

VRI - 0.6 arcsec. fwhm

VIMOS IFU mode: first galaxy spectra, 3 March 2002

1st light on 26 February ‘02

(2 over 4 channels only due to overweight)

3120 spectra ; 2 x 27” x 27” field (zoomed); Antennae Nebula

slide17

VISIR

Built by CEA-Saclay (F) and Astron (NL)

slide18

AO Module

60 elements curvature

Natural & Laser Guide Star

ESO internal development

SPIFFI

3D spectrometer (0.95-2.5µm)

FOV = 0”.8 to 8”, l/Dl ~ 4000

(32 x 32) pixels, 1024 channels

MPE

VLT UT4 (YEPUN)

First Light Jan ‘04

SINFONI

AO-corrected 3D IR spectro-imager  any small structured target

slide19

1-5 m range

  • ~ 105
  • single order(echelle + pre-disperser)
slide20

1st Generation Lesson Learned

  • Management and Contracts
  • Upfront R&D, Phase A added.
  • Agreement on use of Management Tools
  • More ESO-Consortium Partnership
  • Global approach (including operations), close involvement prior to PAE
  • Commissioning painful. Early science added. Early involvement Paranal
  • Technical Aspects
  • - Instruments have too many modes.
  • Positive overall evaluation of VLT (HW and SW) standards
  • Move towards pipelines which produce science products.
slide22

2nd Generation Instruments

Detecting First Fireworks: Gamma-ray bursts and SNae

High Z evolution of galaxies and ISM

First galaxy building blocks and galaxy mass assembly

Star formation environments and detection of exo-planets

Peering deeper into nearby galactic nuclei

Huge stellar spectroscopic surveys of Local Group

A Closer view to stars (Doppler imaging, oscillations)

slide23

2ND Generation VLT Instruments

KMOS: Multi-IFU J-H-K spectrograph

- Competition, Selection Fall ‘03.

- Prototype of multi-IFU concept

X-Shooter

- 300-1800nm fast response spectrograph, R=10000

HAWK-1: IR large field imager

MUSE: Wide Field Surveyor

-Image slicers & 24 low-cost spectrometers, AO assisted

choice in Spring ‘04

Planet Finder

- Two concepts: reflected light versus intrinsic emission

 choice in Spring ‘04

slide24

2nd Generation Instruments: I- KMOS

MPE/USM (R. Bender, PI)

Durham, ATC, Oxford, Bristol

  • Fully Cryogenic multi-IFUs
  • 7’.2 dia. Field; 24 IFUs
  • 3 (2k x 2k) Detectors
  • ~ 3500

Wavelength Coverage: 1-2.45 micron

Sampling: 0.2 arcseconds

slide25

2nd Generation Instruments: I- KMOS

  • Investigate the physical processes which drive galaxy
  • formation and evolution over red shift range 1<z<10.
  • Map the variations in star formation histories, spatially
  • resolved star-formation properties, and merger rates
  • Dynamical masses of galaxies across a wide range of
  • environments at a series of progressively earlier epochs
  • Extremely High-Redshift Galaxies and Re-ionisation
  • The Connection Between Galaxy Formation and
  • Active Galactic Nuclei
  • Age-Dating of Ellipticals at z = 2 to 3
slide26

2nd Generation Instruments: I- KMOS

High-Z Galaxies and Ionization

Lyman-a spectra at 8200 A (R=3200)FORS2

Lyman-a Galaxies at Z>5

(Lehnert and Bremer 2003, ApJ 593,L630)

Challenge: IFU High Sensitivity

slide27

2nd Generation Instruments: X-SHOOTER

Amsterdam, Njimegen, ASTRON(Co-Pi l. Kaper)/ Copenhagen(Co-PI

P.Kjaergaard Rasmussen)/ ESO(Co-PI S. D’Odorico)/ INAF

Merate, Palermo, Trieste,Catania(Co-PI, R. Pallavicini)

  • High throughput, matching or surpassing existing spectrographs
  • Intermediate Resolution ( ~5000-10000)
  • Simultaneous wavelength coverage from the UV to the H band
  • Possibly including spectro-polarimetry
  • Possibly including a mini-IFU (small area spectroscopy and image slicer)
  • Fast centering and setting-up
slide28

2nd Generation Instruments: X-SHOOTER

More than burst: Star Formation at high Z (Fosbury et al.)

Emission line galaxies magnified by

an intervening cluster provide unique

information on star formation history

at early epochs. The Lynx galaxy was

studied at Keck with ESI and

NIRSPEC. Intermediate resolution

spectroscopy has provided line

intensities and kinematics. Used to

infer the properties of the ionizing

sources and abundances.Low spatial

density. Intermediate resolution,

spectral coverage from UV to IR required.

slide29

2nd Generation Instruments: X-SHOOTER

[O III]

Ly 

[O II]

B. Fosbury et al. 2003

Abundnces in ionized gas

In the Lynx galaxy at

z=3.4

ESI

NIRSPEC

slide30

2nd Generation Instruments: X-SHOOTER

FAST, EFFICIENT, FAINT, LARGE COVERAGE

slide31

2nd Generation Instruments: X-SHOOTER

RESOLUTION: An intermediate Resolution spectrograph reaches

sky limits in the OH-free regions (80% of spectrum) in 35-40 min

slide32

2nd Generation Instruments: MUSE

MUSE

CRAL-Lyon (R. Bacon, PI)

Durham, ESO, OP, Leiden, Cambridge, IAP, LAM, ETH, AIP-Postdam

  • 1’ x 1’ field IFU; 0.48-0.95 µm
  • 24 Spectrometers (4k x 4k)
  • No moving part, Nasmyth (fixed)
  • ~ 3,000

MCAO

slide33

MUSE

3D Ultra Deep Field: 10-19 erg s-1 cm-2

Faint Ly a emitters; Progenitors of Milky Way ?

Star Formation History at Z>4

Development of dark matter halos

Link between Lya emitters and High Res. QSO absorption

Physiscs of high Z galaxies from resolved spectroscopy

Kinematics, population, cluster, outflows, merger...

In (nearby) galaxies

Stars: massive spectroscopy of crowded regions,

Origin of bipolar stellar outflows and shock waves

SERENDIPITY

deep field
Deep Field
  • MUSE deep field
  • 80x1 hours integration
  • Galics simulation
    • Escape fraction of Lya 15%
  • Convolved with MUSE PSF
    • AO or non AO
    • MUSE Image Quality
deep field1
Continuum detection

IAB < 26.7

Reduced R (300)

154 gal. arcmin-2

95% at z<3

z

0.2

3.2

Deep field

1 arcmin

1 arcmin

deep field ly a
Lya detection

Flux Lya> 2.5.10-19 erg.s-1.cm-2

245 gal. arcmin-2

113 gal. in z [2.8-4]

132 gal. in z [4-6.7]

Deep Field - Lya

z

2.8

4.7

6.7

deep field2

Lya

2.8

z

z

0.2

z

2.8

4.7

3.2

6.7

Lya

Continuum

Deep Field
  • 399 gal. arcmin-2

1 arcmin

4.7

6.7

deep field3

F(Lya)> 3.10-19 erg.s-1.cm-2

IAB<26.5

Deep Field

Gal.arcmin-2

redshift

deep field lya
Deep Field - Lya
  • Continuum of high z Lya galaxies (z=5-6.7)
    • 00% with IAB<26.5
    • 03% with IAB<28 (HDF)
    • 14% with IAB<29 (UDF)
    • 37% with IAB<30
    • 64% with IAB<31
    • 83% with IAB<32

ground based limit

HST limit

JWST ?

spatial resolution

z

4.7

z

z

2.8

0.2

4.7

6.7

3.2

Lya

Continuum

Spatial resolution

Intensity in log scale

Seeing limited observations in poor seeing conditions

260 gal.arcmin-2 in total, 75 gal.arcmin-2 in z=[4-6.7]

Lya

2.8

6.7

source confusion

z

Lya

6.7

2.8

4.7

z

z

2.8

0.2

4.7

6.7

3.2

Lya

Continuum

Source confusion

Intensity in log scale

AO observations in poor seeing conditions

317 gal.arcmin-2 in total, 101 gal.arcmin-2 in z=[4-6.7]

source confusion1

Lya

6.7

4.7

z

z

2.8

0.2

4.7

6.7

3.2

Lya

Continuum

Source confusion

Intensity in log scale

Seeing limited observations in good seeing conditions

346 gal.arcmin-2 in total, 112 gal.arcmin-2 in z=[4-6.7]

2.8

z

source confusion2

Lya

4.7

z

z

2.8

0.2

4.7

6.7

3.2

Lya

Continuum

Source confusion

Intensity in log scale

AO observations in good seeing conditions

399 gal.arcmin-2 in total, 132 gal.arcmin-2 in z=[4-6.7]

6.7

2.8

z

field to field variation

z

z

0.2

3.2

Lya

Continuum

Field to Field variation

2.8

4.7

6.7

Field Variations

slide45

2nd Generation Instruments: IV- Planet Imager

MPIA-Heidelberg (M. Feldt, PI)

Padova, Lisboa, Amsterdam, MPE, Tautenburg, ETH, Postdam, OAC, Leiden, Jena, Arcetri, Brera

Nasmyth (fixed)

H+J integral field; I polarimetric imaging

2 conjugate high-order AO mirrors

slide46

Phase Stop

2nd Generation Instruments: IV- Planet Imager

LAOG-Grenoble (A.M. Lagrange, PI)

LAM, ONERA, OP, Nice, OCA, Montreal, Durham, UCL, ATC, Geneve

Advanced coronography

differential multi- & polarimetric imaging

High-order AO mirror

slide47

High-Accuracy Radial velocity Planetary Searcher (HARPS)

  • visible range; ~ 105 echelle
  • fibre-coupled to Cassegrain Adapter
  • 100 n./yr. x 5 yrs @ La Silla 3.6m
  • ± 1m/s rms long-term accuracy
  • 1st light 2Q ‘03 3.6M telescope

Built by Geneva Observ. & Bern Univ. (CH), OHP & Service d’Aéronomie (F), ESO La Silla & Garching

slide48

HARPS @3.6M : Tests on stellar jitter: Black G Subgiant, Red: G Main Sequence

Built by Geneva Observ. & Bern Univ. (CH), OHP & Service d’Aéronomie (F), ESO La Silla & Garching

slide49

HARPS@3.6M: ACen B Oscillations (400 exposures, 6.5 hours)

Built by Geneva Observ. & Bern Univ. (CH), OHP & Service d’Aéronomie (F), ESO La Silla & Garching