Further Physical and Organic Chemistry. Contents. Kinetics Equilibria Acids and Bases Nomenclature and Isomerism in Organic Chemistry Compounds containing the Carbonyl Group Aromatic Chemistry Amines Amino Acids Polymers Structure Determination. Kinetics.
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Kc= [C]c [D]d
Kc= [C]c [D]d
HA Â H+ + A-
Ka= [H+ ] [A-]
These two molecules cannot be superimposed. If you don’t believe it build a model.
This form of isomerism is called optical isomerism because the different isomers can rotate polarised light in different directions
The central carbon is called a chiral carbon.
The two isomers are called enantiomers.
A mixture of isomers is called a racemic mixture
This is represents the delocalised bonding that exists in benzene. Each carbon –carbon bond is approximately half way between the length of a single bond and double bond. Having the six electrons delocalised over the whole ring confers extra stability.
Benzene reacts with only very reactive electrophiles.
NO2 + H2O
Br + HBr
C2H5 + HCl
H2N –C –COOH
+H3N –C –COO-
As shown the molecule can have both negative and positive components, this is called a zwitterion. In acidic solutions the ion has an overall positive charge and in alkaline solutions the ion has an overall negative charge.
Proteins are sequences of amino acids joined by peptide links. These links can be hydrolysed to produce the constituent amino acids.
A peptide Link
Characteristic OH absorption at 3300cm-1
Fingerprint region characteristic of each substance
Wave numbers cm-1