2007 The Ins and Outs of Food Labeling (Part Two) This module is adapted from the FDA Food Labeling Guide www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/flg-toc.html Module designed by Tera Sandvik, LRD, Project Coordinator; Julie Garden-Robinson, PhD, LRD, Food and Nutrition Specialist; and Tami Totland, RD, Program Assistant
Are You Ready? • You should have completed Part I of the Food Labeling module set before beginning this module. • By the end of this module, you will know the basic requirements for nutrition labeling and have an introduction to food allergen labeling.
The following tips will help you navigate through each module. • Click the left mouse button or the down arrow to continue on to the next bullet or slide. • Before you begin, you’ll take a presurvey. • The presurvey will open in a new window. • When you are finished with the presurvey, close the window to return to the module. • A symbolizes a question slide. You’ll need to click your mouse once to see the answer.
A means you’ll need to go to the site listed to answer the question. • After visiting the site, close the Internet browser to return to the module. • Click your mouse once to see the answer. • When you are finished with the module, you will take a post-survey. • The post-survey will open in a new window. • When you are finished with the post-survey, close the window to return to the module.
Presurvey • Before we begin, let’s take a presurvey to see how much you already know. • Click here to begin.
Nutrition Facts • Food labels must contain information on certain nutrients in a specific order to comply with FDA and USDA regulations. • The Nutrition Facts label contains product-specific information • Serving size • Calories • Nutrient information
Nutrition Facts Cont. • Some nutrients are mandatory. • Voluntary nutrients can be included at the manufacturer’s discretion. • The order nutrients must appear in reflects the priority of current dietary recommendations. • Voluntary nutrients become mandatory if a health claim is made about them, or a food is fortified with them.
Total calories Calories from fat Calories from saturated fat Total fat Saturated fat Polyunsaturated fat Monounsaturated fat Trans fat Cholesterol Sodium Potassium Total carbohydrate Dietary fiber Soluble fiber Insoluble fiber Sugars Sugar alcohol Other carbohydrate Protein Vitamin A Percent of vitamin A present as beta-carotene Vitamin C Calcium Iron Other vitamins and minerals Below you will find a list of mandatory (highlighted in blue) and voluntary nutrients, and the order in which they must appear.
Which of the following nutrients is not mandatory on the Nutrition Facts label? • Dietary fiber • Polyunsaturated fat • Total calories • Calcium Click to see the answer. If you chose “B,” you are correct.
The order in which the nutrients must appear on the Nutrition Facts label is: • Decided upon by the manufacturer • Alphabetical • In order by today’s health concerns • None of the above Click to see the answer. If you chose “C,” you are correct.
Serving Size • Serving size information is on the Nutrition Facts label • Serving size is the basis for reporting each food’s nutrient content • Serving size is: • The amount of food customarily eaten at one time. • This information must be expressed in both common household and metric measures.
Common household measures include: • Cup • Tablespoon • Teaspoon • Piece • Slice • Fraction • Ounce (may be used if a common household unit is not applicable) • Metric measures include: • Grams • Milliliters
The FDA has established lists of “Reference Amounts Customarily Consumed Per Eating Occasion.” These reference amounts are broken down into 139 FDA-regulated food product categories. • The FDA used national food consumption surveys to determine appropriate serving sizes for the 139 product categories.
The following statements are true about serving sizes, EXCEPT: • Serving size is located on the Nutrition Facts panel. • No standards exist for serving sizes. • Serving sizes must be listed in common household and metric measures. • Serving sizes are based on the amount of food customarily consumed per eating occasion. Click to see the answer. If you chose “B,” you are correct.
Daily Values - DRVs • Daily reference values (DRVs) have been established for macronutrients that are sources of energy: • Fat • Saturated fat • Total carbohydrate • Protein • Other DRVs that do not contain calories are: • Cholesterol • Sodium • Potassium • The %DV is listed on the nutrition panel in a column headed “% Daily Value” on the far right side.
DRVs cont. • DRVs help consumers see where foods fit into their overall daily diet. • %DVs are intended to prevent misinterpretations. • Five percent DV or less is low for all nutrients • Twenty percent DV or more is high for all nutrients. • The %DV carries a footnote stating percentages are based on a 2,000-calorie diet. • DRVs list the daily values for selected nutrients for a 2,000-calorie and a 2,500-calorie diet.
True or False: One serving (8 oz. of skim milk has a “1% DV” for cholesterol. This means that one cup of skim milk is low in cholesterol. Click to see the answer. If you chose “True,” you are correct.
Trans Fat • Jan. 1, 2006, the FDA mandated that trans fatty acids (also called “trans fat”) appear on food labels. • Trans fat should be listed on a separate line under saturated fat on the Nutrition Facts panel. • Manufacturers may be exempt from listing trans fat if • Total fat is less than 0.5 gram per serving and • No claims are made about fat, fatty acids or cholesterol content. • If trans fat is not listed, a footnote must be added that states the food is “not a significant source of trans fat.”
Ingredient Statement • Ingredient statements are required on foods having more than one ingredient. • Usual placement is below the Nutrition Facts and above the manufacturer or distributor information. • Ingredients must be listed with the ingredient weighing the most first and the ingredient weighing the least last. • An ingredient that contains two or more ingredients may be listed by its common name, but must list in parenthesis all the ingredients that are in that particular item. • Trace ingredients of less than 2% by weight should be listed at the end of the ingredient statement. The following statement can be used: “contains 2% or less of ____.”
Ingredient Statement • The ingredient list must include food colorings and chemical preservatives. • Certified colors must be listed by their specific or abbreviated names (e.g. “FD&C Red No. 40” or “Red 40”). • Noncertified colors may be listed as “artificial color” or by their specific common or usual name. • When a chemical preservative is added to a food, the common or usual name and the function of the preservative must be included (e.g. Ascorbic Acid to Promote Color Retention).
Ingredient Statement Example Ingredient Statement
Where is the ingredient statement located? • On the information panel • On the PDP • The manufacturer can decide • A and B Click to see the answer. If you chose “A,” you are correct.
In what order must the ingredients be listed? • No order is mandatory • In ascending order of predominance by weight • In descending order of predominance by weight • In alphabetical order Click to see the answer. If you chose “C,” you are correct.
Place of Business • Food labels must include the name and address of the manufacturer, packer or distributor. • This information is most often placed on the lower portion of the information panel. • The following information is required: • Business name or “manufactured/distributed by” • Street address • City • State • ZIP code
Place of Business • If the firm name is correctly listed in the current phone book, the actual street address can be omitted. A telephone number or e-mail address may be listed, but is not required.
All of the following are required on food labels, EXCEPT: • Phone number • State or county • ZIP code • Business name or “manufactured/distributed by” Click to see the answer. If you chose “A,” you are correct.
What part of the food label most often contains the place of business information? • PDP • Information panel • To the left of the PDP • None of the above Click to see the answer. If you chose “B,” you are correct.
Labeling Formats Labels can be formatted in three ways: • Basic format • Smaller-packet format • Simplified-label format
Basic Format • The basic format is appropriate for packages with 40 or more square inches of available label space and approximately 3 inches or more of continuous vertical space. Exact specifications of the basic label format can be found in 21 CFR 101.9 (d) and 9 CFR 317.309 (d). • Information required with the basic format includes: • All mandatory nutrients • Absolute amounts of mandatory nutrients • %DV for major nutrients • DRVs for 2,000- and 2,500-calorie diets
Smaller-packet Format • Alternative formats are available for products with less than 40 square inches of available space. Information on small package formats can be found in 21 CFR 101.9 (j)(13) or 9 CFR 317.309 (g). • One alternative is identical to the basic format, but excludes the second sentence of the footnote and the summary chart of Daily Values. An abbreviated tabular format and a linear format also are permissible.
Smaller-packet Format Cont. • Packages with labels smaller than 12 square inches do not need a nutrition label. • They must display a phone number or address the consumer can write to for nutrition information. • Packages under USDA jurisdiction weighing less than 0.5 ounce do not require nutrition information.
Simplified-label Format • Foods that fall under FDA jurisdiction may qualify for a simplified label if seven or more of the mandatory nutrients and total calories contain insignificant amounts. • Information on total calories, total fat, sodium, total carbohydrate and protein always are required. • Other nutrients, along with calories from fat, must be shown if they are present in more than insignificant amounts, or if they have been added to the food.
Simplified-label Format Cont. • The simplified format may be used when any required nutrient(s) other than the core nutrients (calories, total fat, total carbohydrate, protein and sodium) is present in an insignificant amount. The following statement, “Not a significant source of ___,” must appear on the nutrition panel.
Match the label to the type of format. Click to see the answer. Basic Jell-O Small package Cereal box Simplified Cornstarch
Other Formats • Other formats are available for products designed for children under 2 or 4 years of age. See 21 CFR 101.9 (j)(5) for more information.
Nutrition Claims • Claims on food labels are made to identify the nutrition-related attribute of a food. These claims fall into one of the following categories: • Health claims • Nutrient content claims • Structure-function claims • Dietary guidance statements
Health Claims • A food must meet criteria preapproved by the FDA to carry a health claim. Health claims confirm a relationship between a food or a component in a food and risk of a health-related condition or disease. • An example of a health claim is: “While many factors affect heart disease, diets low in saturated fat and cholesterol may reduce the risk of this disease.”
Nutrient Content Claims • Nutrient content claims characterize the level of a nutrient in a serving of food. To make this type of claim, a food product must contain a FDA-designated amount of the nutrient per reference amount (or standard serving size). • Example phrases include: “Excellent source of calcium,” Low cholesterol” and “Less sugar.”
Structure-function Claims • Structure-function claims describe the role of a nutrient or dietary ingredient that affects or maintains the normal structure or function of the body. Examples of this type of claim include: “calcium builds strong bones,” fiber maintains bowel regularity” and “lycopene maintains cell integrity.”
Dietary Guidelines • Dietary guidance statements describe the health effects of a broad category of foods. Here is an example of a dietary guidance statement: “Diets rich in fruits and vegetables may reduce the risk of some types of cancer and other chronic diseases.”
Health claim Nutrient content claim Structure-function claim Dietary guidance statement Antioxidants maintain cell integrity Three grams of soluble fiber daily from oatmeal, in a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol, may reduce the risk of heart disease. Diets rich in fruits and vegetables may reduce the risk of some types of cancer and other chronic diseases. Reduced fat. Match the health claim in the left column with the column on the right. Click to see the answers.
Food Allergens • Approximately 2 percent of adults and about 5 percent of infants and young children in the U.S. suffer from food allergies. • Each year, roughly 30,000 individuals require emergency room treatment and 150 individuals die because of allergic reactions to food.
Milk Eggs Fish Crustacean shellfish Tree nuts Peanuts Wheat Soybeans List the 8 Major Food Allergens Click to see the answer.
Food Allergen Labeling is Required • Example: “Contains peanuts.” • The food allergen statement is printed immediately after or is adjacent to the list of ingredients (in a type size no smaller than the type size used in the list of ingredients). • For more information visit: • www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/alrgact.html
Post-survey • Let’s see what you’ve learned. • Click here to begin the post-survey. • The last slide shows additional resources. • After the slideshow is done go to “File” and click on “Print.” • A box will open up. • Click on “Slides” under “Print Range.” • Type in “53” and click on “okay.”
Learn more about food labeling with the following online resources. • www.cfsan.fda.gov/list.html • www.fsis.usda.gov/ • www.ext.nodak.edu • www.ag.ndsu.nodak.edu/cdfs/foodent/test.htm • www.ag.ndsu.nodak.edu/food.htm NDSU is an equal opportunity institution.