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Introduction to the Science of Nutrition. NS 332 9/4/09. Nutrition: the process by which a living organism assimilates food and uses it for growth and maintenance of tissues. Nutrients- components of food: Provide energy Provide structural materials

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Introduction to the Science of Nutrition


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Nutrition: the process by which a living organism assimilates food and uses it for growth and maintenance of tissues

Nutrients- components of food:

  • Provide energy
  • Provide structural materials
  • Provide regulatory agents that support cell growth, maintenance, and repair of tissues
  • May reduce the risk of certain diseases
definitions
Definitions

- Homeostasis

  • Food
  • Diet
  • Organic (vitamins)
  • Inorganic (minerals)
  • Essential nutrient (3 criteria)
  • Phytochemical: non-essential, but may optimize nutritional status
an abbreviated history of nutrition
An Abbreviated History of Nutrition
  • 1747: Dr. Lind discovered that limes prevented scurvy
  • 1770: Levoisier documented that food and oxygen in the body produces in heat and water
  • 1897: Eijkman discovered that brown rice as opposed to white rice prevented Beri-Beri
  • 1912: McCollum discovered vitamin A
current nutrition
Current Nutrition
  • Determine:
    • Optimal levels of nutrients that lead to optimal health
    • The role of phytochemicals- non essential but may lead to greater health
    • Optimal nutrition for individuals
classes of nutrients
Classes of Nutrients
  • Macronutrients

- Carbohydrate

- Lipid

- Protein

- Water

  • Micronutrients
    • Vitamins
    • Minerals
classes of nutrients carbohydrates
Classes of Nutrients: Carbohydrates

- Main source of energy

- Fruits, vegetables, grains

- Composed of carbon (C), hydrogen (H), and oxygen (0)

- Sugars, starches, and fiber

classes of nutrients lipids
Classes of Nutrients: Lipids

- Energy source, component of cell walls

- Oils, fats, nuts, fatty fish, avocado

- C, H, O, sometimes phosphorous (P) and nitrogen (N)

- Saturated, unsaturated, essential, and trans fats

classes of nutrients proteins
Classes of Nutrients: Proteins

- Main structural material in the body and nitrogen source

- Meat, poultry, fish, soy based products, dairy, legumes, grains

- C,H,O,N,S

- Composed of amino acids

- Complete vs incomplete

classes of nutrients water
Classes of Nutrients: Water

- Essential for all life

  • Functions as a solvent, a lubricant, and a medium for transporting nutrients into cells
  • Human body is 60% water
classes of nutrients1
Classes of Nutrients

Vitamins

- Organic compounds (13 known essential)

- Necessary for specific biochemical reactions in cells

- Water or fat soluble

Minerals

- Inorganic elements (16 known essential)

- Key roles in the nervous and skeletal system as well as necessary for biochemical reactions in cells

- Major and trace

energy the capacity to do work
Energy: the Capacity to do Work
  • Without energy, we couldn’t move or breathe
  • Food is a form of chemical energy measured in calories
  • Calorie is a unit of heat energy:
    • 1 kilocalorie = 1000 calories
    • 1 kcal = the amount of energy necessary to increase the temperature of 1 kg of water 1°C (a relatively small amt of heat)
    • Food is more accurately expressed in kcal
    • Food labels use ‘calories’ but they really mean kcal
energy in biological systems atp
Energy in Biological Systems: ATP
  • Without energy we couldn’t move or breathe
  • Adenosine triphosphate
  • Energy from food is captured as ATP through metabolism
  • ATP drives any biological reaction that requires energy
how do we know how much energy calories is in the food we eat
How do we know how much energy (calories) is in the food we eat?
  • 4-9-4 rule:
    • Carbohydrate = 4 kcal/gram
    • Fat = 9 kcal/gram
    • Protein = 4 kcal/gram
  • 1 medium banana
  • carbs 30g x 4 kcal/g = 120 kcal
  • fat 0.5g x 9 kcal/g = 5 kcal
  • protein 1.0g x 4 kcal/g = 4 kcal
  • Total = 129 kcal
daily intake of macronutrients
Daily intake of Macronutrients

Carbs: 300 g x 4 kcal/g = 1,200 kcal (62% total)

Fat: 50 g x 9 kcal/g = 450 kcal (23% total)

Protein: 70g x 4kcal/g = 280 kcal (15% total)

1,930 total kcal

nutrient density
Nutrient Density
  • A ratio of vitamin and mineral content of a food to its energy content

5%-- Energy-------4%

0%-- Protein------18%

0%-- Vitamin A---21%

0%-- Vitamin C---0%

0%-- Thiamine---10%

0%-- Riboflavin---44%

0%-- Niacin--------2%

0%-- Calcium------24%

0%-- Iron-----------0%

8 oz

8 oz

(shown as a %RDA for adolescent females)

energy density
Energy Density
  • A ratio of the energy content of a food (kcal) with its weight (g)
nutritional assessment
Nutritional Assessment
  • Anthropometric measurements
  • Biochemical testing
  • Clinical Assessment
  • Diet history
malnutrition
Malnutrition
  • Undernutrition
    • Biochemical lesion
    • Clinical lesion
    • Primary deficiency
    • Secondary deficiency
malnutrition1
Malnutrition
  • Overnutrition
    • Obesity – excess of energy
    • Excess of micronutrients