Treatment of Psychological Disorders. Therapy Misconceptions. 1.) Therapy is only for “crazy” people 2.) All Therapists used same technique seen in movies 3.) Therapy leads to a single dramatic insight that cures client. Background. How was the idea of therapy created? Story of Anna O.
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Therapy Misconceptions • 1.) Therapy is only for “crazy” people • 2.) All Therapists used same technique seen in movies • 3.) Therapy leads to a single dramatic insight that cures client
Background • How was the idea of therapy created? • Story of Anna O.
Who seeks therapy? • 15% of U.S. population • Common reasons- anxiety, depression, relationship difficulties, poor self-control, destructive habits, low self-esteem, marital conflicts • Unfortunately many who need therapy don’t receive it (or if they do, there is a delay) • Why?
Who provides treatment • Psychologists: • Clinical Psychologists – Training emphasizes treatment of full fledged disorders • Counseling Psychologists – Slanted towards treatment of everyday adjustment problems in normal people • Psychiatrists: Physicians who specialize in diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders. • M.D. • Difference between these individuals and counselors
Treatment Types • 1.) Insight Therapies- Clients engage in lengthy verbal discussions with therapists • Psychoanalysis, Client Centered Therapy, Group Therapy • 2.) Behavior Therapies- This therapy involves direct efforts to alter problematic responses and bad habits • Systematic Desensitization, Flooding, Aversion Therapy, Social Skills Training, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy • 3.) Biomedical Therapies- Therapy that manipulates physiology to improve functioning • Drugs, shock therapy
Insight Therapy - Psychoanalysis • Psychoanalysis – Developed by Freud • Emphasizes recovery of unconscious conflicts, motives, and defenses • Techniques: • Free Association – Clients Spontaneously express thoughts and feelings exactly as they occur, with as little censorship as possible. • Demo • Dream Analysis – Therapist interprets symbolic meaning of clients dreams • Rorschach Test- Therapist interprets clients responses to vague inkblot pictures.
Insight Therapy- Psychoanalysis • Resistance – Individuals sometimes use defensive maneuvers (largely unconscious) to hinder therapy • Class speculation as to why • Freudian way of getting around this resistance: • Transference – Client starts relating to therapist in ways that mimic critical relationships in their lives
Insight Therapy – Client Centered • Client Centered Therapy – Carl Rogers • Therapy emphasizes providing supportive emotional clients, who play a major role in determining pace and direction of therapy. • Sample Clips/Demo • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m30jsZx_Ngs • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ew8CAr1v48M&feature=PlayList&p=9EA5A3049225F48F&playnext=1&playnext_from=PL&index=6 • Why might this method be effective?
Insight Therapy- Group Therapy • Group Therapy- Simultaneous treatment of several clients in a group. • Role of group members: • Role of therapist:
Behavior Therapy- Systematic Desensitization • Systematic Desensitization • Therapy used to reduce phobic responses • Steps: • 1.) anxiety hierarchy built • example • 2.) train client in relaxation techniques • 3.) client works through hierarchy, learning to relax during each stage. • Goal is to weaken association between CS and CR
Behavior Therapy - Flooding • Flooding • Involves extensive and lengthy exposure to phobic stimulus • Nothing gradual about this procedure • Example/Demo
Behavior Therapy- Aversion Therapy • Aversion Therapy- Uses classical conditioning to create a negative response to a stimulus that has created a problematic behavior. • Examples: • Demo
Behavior Therapy- Social Skills Training • Social Skills Training- Designed to improve interpersonal skills by emphasizing modeling, behavior rehearsal and shaping. • Modeling- watch socially skilled friends • Rehearsal- practice social skills in role playing situations • Shaping- Gradual build up to complicated social situations • Sample Scenario/Demo
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy • uses combination of verbal intervention and behavior modification techniques to help clients change maladaptive patterns o thinking. • Attempt to correct errors in thinking and modify behavior • Example
Biomedical Therapy- Drugs • Treatment with Drugs- psychiatrists prescribe medications to lessen anxiety, antipsychotic symptoms, depression, and stabilize mood. • Antianxiety drugs- Valium, Xanax • Antipsychotic drugs- reduce hallucinations, delusions, confusion • Antidepressants- Prozac, Zoloft • Mood Stabilizers- treatment for bipolar disorder
Issues with drug treatment • Discussion
Biomedical Therapy-Electroconvulsive Therapy • ECT therapy- Biomedical treatment in which electric shock is used to produce cortical seizure with convulsions • What is procedure like? • Overall conclusion about effectiveness
Other Therapy Issues • Where can therapy be found? • Sexual Relationships between client/therapist • Cost • Realistic expectations about therapy