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  1. Strength Training for Women, Young Athletes and Senior Athletes Chapters 9-11

  2. Female Needs • Upper body strength, size and power • Less CSA than males and smaller diameter • May use a bodybuilding program? • Benefits are the same as males

  3. Myths? Page 176

  4. Strength and Power Development • Heavy resistance (80-95%) and low reps (3-5RM) • P=(fxd)/t strength vs. speed training • High speed and acceleration training • Typically 30-45% of 1RM for power • Plyometrics and SAQ

  5. Periodized program Page 179

  6. Torque & Power Velocity Curves Power Max Torque Force Min Vmax 0 1/3 Vmax

  7. Physiological Gender Differences • Fewer and smaller fibers • Quantity vs quality? • Upper body absolute strength 40% of males • Lower body absolute strength 70% of males • Power 65% of males • Lower body relative strength is SIMILAR • Women may have larger type I than II fibers • RFD and RVD less for women (neural bias)

  8. Figure 9.4

  9. Hormonal Differences • 10-20 times less T than males • Women adapt faster with type II fibers? • Program design for women • Free weights and machines and high intensity • Upper body exercises • Olympic lifting • Functional strength • Free weights over machines

  10. Figure 9.5

  11. Injury and Menstrual Differences • Greater ACL injury in women • Less thickness and smaller notch • Neural bias? • Problems with low calorie intake and intense lower body exercise (stress) • Olympic athletes bottom of page 186 • Pregnant women Page 186 • Performance appears the same across the cycle • Female athlete triad Page 187

  12. NSCA position stand on page 188

  13. Youth Training • Safety is paramount SUPERVISION • Injury comes from improper technique • Epiphysis damage, bone fracture and stress fracture RISK are greater in youth • Weight room vs. sports injuries • Risk vs. benefit?

  14. When to Start? • Psychological readiness (why?) • Physiological readiness (size) • Neural adaptations pre-puberty (quick and dramatic gains) • Testosterone secretion by sex • Benefits Page 203

  15. Figure 10.1

  16. Mythology • Stunt children's growth • Girls will get BIG • Guidelines for youth • Ready? • Program design • Technique • Spotting • Equipment safety • Equipment fit • Balanced program • Growth plate damage

  17. Youth Program Design • Beginners • Body weight first • Light weights • Partner exercise • Athletes • Supervised • 3 x week for 30-60 minutes • NSCA POSITION STAND ON PAGE 208 • Periodized program onpage 211

  18. Table 10.1

  19. Age and Strength • Genetic and cultural • Magnitude of training with age? • Decline in strength with age • Andropause and menopause • Sarcopenia of type II • Great decline at 6th decade and worse in women • Loss of CSA • Power loss with age (correlated with function) • Physiological loss bottom of page 217

  20. Figure 11.1

  21. Figure 11.2

  22. Training for Seniors • Dramatic strength gains in seniors? • Neural changes • Increase in CSA primarily type II (heavy resistance) • Reduced testosterone • Increase power with explosive exercise (F=ma) Page 222 • Proper nutrition page 222

  23. Figure 11.3

  24. Recovery and Guidelines • Longer time for rest (frequency) • Interset? • Greater muscle damage • Joint stress with compression • Increased bone health • Program design is the same at any age • Injury risk with weak bones and tissues

  25. Next Class • Periodization 12-week chart