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Time use Survey in Europe HETUS Project and the Italian experience Tania Cappadozzi

United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs Statistical Division (UNSD) Expert Group Meeting The revision of ICATUS 11-13 June 2012 New York. Time use Survey in Europe HETUS Project and the Italian experience Tania Cappadozzi Italian National Institute of Statistics

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Time use Survey in Europe HETUS Project and the Italian experience Tania Cappadozzi

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  1. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs Statistical Division (UNSD) Expert Group Meeting The revision of ICATUS11-13 June 2012 New York Time use Survey in Europe HETUS Project and the Italian experience Tania Cappadozzi Italian National Institute of Statistics Senior researcher in Time Use Survey

  2. Index • Time Use Survey: main uses in Italy and EU • HETUS project and the Italian TUS • HETUS Methodological features • HETUS classification system • An Italian peculiarity: Children Time • Main differences between HETUS and ICATUSclassification

  3. Time Use Survey and Gender statistics The It and EU aims Time Use Surveys are a precious source of information on several issues. In Italy this survey is used mainly in the social sector, for gender statistics. With Time Use data it’s possible: • to analyze in detail the division of paid and unpaid workloads between men and women. • to understand how men and women use their time • to identify the way gender differences in time use develop during the various stages of life

  4. The HETUS project EU historical background In the European context the HETUS project (Harmonised European Time Use Studies) has been created by Eurostat since early 1990s to harmonize the Time Use surveys. A first wave of pilot surveys were conducted during those years. On the bases of their results, the guidelines were developed during the late 1990s. A final draft was published in 2000 and revised in 2008 thanks to the work of a Task Force. At present these Guidelines, although not constraining, are the main reference guide for the European Member countries that are interested in the international results’ comparability.

  5. The main recommendations of HETUS guidelines Methodological features • Population and sample design • The population is composed by persons resident at domestic addresses and not in institutions (military service, hospitals, prisons), aged 10 years and older (IT-TUS includes children 3-9 years old). • Regarding sample design, highest priority is given to individual observations and to keep individual non-response low. All members of the household are included in the sample. • Number of diary days • 2 diary days: 1 week day and 1 week-end day (IT-TUS uses only one diary day). • Coverage of the year • The survey days/dates have to be representative of, and cover a full 12 months period. The diary days are allocated to households/individuals by a controlled random procedure. • 4 harmonised survey tools • The day diary • The weekly diary • The individual questionnaire • The household questionnaire • Classification system and coding rules • Basic tables

  6. IT historical background The Italian Time Use Survey (IT-TUS) In ItalyTUS is planned every five years by the law 53 of 2000. • The Harmonized European Pilot Survey: June - September 1996 • The first wave of the Harmonized European Time Use Surveys: from April 2002 to March2003 • 21.075 Households • 51.206 Day diaries • The second wave of the Harmonized European Time Use Surveys: from February2008 to January 2009 • 18.250 Households • 40.945 Day diaries • ISTAT is now planning the fourth Time use survey: scheduled from October2013to September2014 • The first Italian Time Use Survey: from June 1988 to May 1989 • 13,729 households • 38,110 Day diaries HETUS Guidelines 2000 HETUS Guidelines 2008

  7. Methodological features Italian survey instruments and interviewing techniques IT Survey tools Face to face Interview with paper questionnaire • Household questionnaire (context variables) One for each household in the sample • Individual questionnaire (context variables) One for each household member • Day diary (when,what, what else, where, with whom) One for each household member aged 3 years or older • Week diary (hours of paid-work in a week) • One for each household member • aged 15 years or older Self-administered paper questionnaires

  8. The IT day diary Methodological features IT Survey tools The daily diary starts at 04:00 am and covers 24 hours with144 intervals of 10 minutes (HETUS recommendation).

  9. Coding the day diary Coding activitiy The respondents describe the activities performed usingcommon language The coding process translates the sentences reported by the interviewed into codes Classification system proposed by HETUS, IT-TUS adapted to the national needs International comparability

  10. Coding activitiy Coding activity: the complexity Association text-code is not an easy one to one linkage, but it is the outcome of a process • Extreme content variety • Extreme language variety • Necessity to keep a lot of contextual information under control • Scarcity/Redundancy of Information • Wrong compilation (wrong column use) • Incomplete compilation (missing information about some variables in one or more intervals)

  11. Coding activitiy Coding activity: the problems Two equal actions, performed in the same setting, can be coded in different ways depending on their different purpose • Thesame activitycan be coded with different codes depending on: • who performs it (sex, age, profession, • household structure, etc.) • location where the activity takes place • the target of action • the sequence of activities • etc.

  12. Coding activitiy Coding activity: some remarks According to IT experience for the good result of the coding phase is extremely important: • Give to respondents clear instructionfor filling in pages on day diary; • provide a good coding manual containing clear coding rules, in particular for solving problems deriving with an incorrect filling of the day diary (multiple activities in a 10 minute interval, lack of travelling activities, etc.) and a lot of clear examples; • a very goodcoders’training; • Italy has chosen to record also sentences reported in day diary, useful to adopt a mixed coding strategy: introducing an automatic coding step for activities not affected by context information and a computer-assisted coding step formore complex situations.

  13. HETUS classification system The HETUS 2008 activity codes The system of activity codes is: First level is always present. The following levels are just specifications of the first level’s categories At three levels Hierarchical

  14. The HETUS activity classification system HETUS classification system 0PERSONAL CARE EMPLOYMENT STUDY HOUSEHOLD AND FAMILY CARE VOLUNTEER WORK AND MEETINGS SOCIAL LIFE AND ENTERTAINMENT SPORTS AND OUTDOOR ACTIVITIES HOBBY AND GAMES MASS MEDIA 9 TRAVEL AND UNSPECIFIED TIME USE 10 Major divisions (1 digit codes) - 332 - digits codes - 108 3 - digits codes For IT Classification - 124 National codes (3 or 4 - digits codes) 14

  15. HETUS classification system Location and transport mode codes list • The location and transport mode codes list is not hierarchical • HETUS - 17 codes (10 location codes 7 transport mode codes) • IT-TUS - 53 codes (36location codes 17 transport mode codes) HETUS 00 unspecified location/transport mode LOCATION CODES 10 unspecified location (not travelling) 11home 12weeend home or holiday apartment 13workplace or school 14other people’s home 15 restaurant, cafe or pub 16 shopping centers, markets, other shops 17 hotel, guesthouse, camping site 19 other specified location TRANSPORT MODE CODES 20 Unspecified transport mode 21 Travelling on foot 22 Travelling by bicycle 23 Travelling by moped, motorcycle or motorboat 24 Travelling by passenger car 29 Other private transport mode 31 Travelling by public transport

  16. An Italian peculiarity: the children diaries IT classification system • Children: • Have particular activities • They live the activities in a “different” way • They use a different language • They give more importance to the person with whom they are, compared to the activity that they are doing How to code all these differences?

  17. Children diaries In IT classification system there are 29 codes only for children Example: 2121 - Homework during vacation In particular special codes are used if children are with someone but they don’t say what they are doing

  18. Comparing HETUS and ICATUS activity coding list Exemples: • “My mother help me to eat” is coded like “I eat” • “My son help me to dress myself” is coded like “I dress myself”

  19. Comparing HETUS and ICATUS activity coding list Examples: • “feeding chickens” if respondent declares itself or other family members as farmer this is coded as paid work, but if he is a teacher this is coded “Tending domestic animals” in domestic work. • “I make textiles” done by a tailor is work, by a lawyer is coded in domestic work.

  20. Comparing HETUS and ICATUS activity coding list Warning: When primary production activities (GARDENING/TENDING DOMESTIC ANIMALS) - non primary production activities (MAKING TEXTILES) and CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES are done for household but not for work (according with occupation declared in the individual questionnaire) in HETUS are classified in DOMESTIC WORK

  21. Comparing HETUS and ICATUS activity coding list

  22. Comparing HETUS and ICATUS activity coding list

  23. Comparing HETUS and ICATUS activity coding list

  24. Comparing HETUS and ICATUS activity coding list Example of using code 998 How to code “I go out with my friends" for one hour without any specification? Probably is leisure time but we don’t know what are they doing 998

  25. Thanks for your attention! For more information on Italian Time Use survey: “Time Use in Daily Life” (in English) http://www3.istat.it/dati/catalogo/20080612_01/

  26. Time use data can also be analyzed to study. . . The aims • The relationship between working times, times of study, of other productive activities, leisure time and family care • The activities and needs of particular social categories (elderly and children) • Household productive activities not reported by the National Accounting System • The days of the week and the hours of the day in which public services are used • The times in which places and locations are used (helpful for their better planning ) • The leisure time • The use of mass media including the most innovative IT tools

  27. At a macro level -TUS offers a detailed picture to plan: The aims • Family policies more attentive to the necessity of reconciliation between working activities and family duties and to the necessities of elderly and children; • A labour policy more conscious of the characteristics and of the new forms of work; • A better transports’ organization according to the information about the daily mobility and the means of transport used; • In general a better planning and organization of public services.

  28. The IT day diary: instruction for filling in pages Methodological features IT Survey tools

  29. Comparing HETUS and ICATUS activity coding list WARNING ON CHILDCARE In Daft ICATUS 2012 Reading, playing and talking with children is coded like Teaching, training and helping children while in ICATUS 2005 these activities were separated, just like in HETUS. According to IT experience teaching it’s a very different activity respect playing with children. In Italy frequently there is a gendered division of roles: the mother helps children with homework, the father plays with them! We suggest to divide these activity again

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