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Creating Web Pages with HTML and CSS

Creating Web Pages with HTML and CSS

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Creating Web Pages with HTML and CSS

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  1. Creating Web Pages with HTML and CSS ISY 475

  2. HTML Introduction • History: • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HTML • Standard • The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) • HTML 5: <!DOCTYPE html> • Multimedia controls • Video, audio, canvas

  3. Online Resources for Learning HTML • w3schools.com • http://www.w3schools.com/default.asp

  4. HTML Tags (Elements) • Heading section • <head>, <title>, <meta>, <script>, etc. • Body section • <body>, <p>, <h1> to <h6>, <a>, <br> • <div>, <span> • Formatting: <b>, <I>, <u>, <center> • Comment: <!-- comment --> • List <ul> • Image • Table: <table>, <tr>: a new row in table, <td>: a new cell in a table row. • Form: <form>, <input>, <select>

  5. HTML Attributes • HTML elements can have attributes that provide additional information about an element. • Attributes are always specified in the start tag • Attributes come in name/value pairs like: name="value“ • Name and value are case-sensitive and lowercase is recommended. • Examples: • <div id="content"> • <h1 class="center">

  6. TABLE Tag <table id=“depTable“ border="1" width=“400"> <thead> <tr> <th>Year</th> <th>Value at BeginYr</th> <th>Dep During Yr</th> <th>Total to EndOfYr</th> </tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr> <td>1</td> <td>2000</td> <td>400</td> <td>400</td> </tr> </tbody> </table>

  7. FORM Tag • Form attributes: • action: Specify the URL of a program on a server or an email address to which a form’s data will be submitted. • method: • Get: the form’s data is appended to the URL specified by the Action attribute as a QueryString. • Post: A preferred method for database processing. Form’s data is sent in the HTTP body. • mame: Form’s name

  8. QueryString • A QueryString is a set of name=value pairs appended to a target URL. • It can be used to pass information from one webpage to another. • Example: • http://my.com/Target.htm?CustID=C1&Cname=Chao

  9. Adding HTML ControlsTools/Palette/HTML, JSPCode Clips

  10. Creating HTML Form: Double-click Form element

  11. Create a Form Using NetBean

  12. Step by Step • 1. Add a form tag: • Name property • Action: server-side program; leave it blank for client-side • 2. Add lables by typing • 3. Add text input • 4. Add dropdown list: • Number of options • 5. Add radiobutton • All buttons belong to a group • 6. Add button • Lable • Type: • Submit – submit to a server • Standard – client-side • 7. Add <br> to start a new line

  13. Dropdown List Example <select name="Rate"> <option value=.04>4%</option> <option value=045>4.5%</option> <option value=.05 >5%</option> <option value=.055>5.5%</option> <option value=.06>6%</option> </select>

  14. RadioButton Example:RadioButtons having the same name belong to one group <input type="radio" name="Year" value=10 />10 year<<br> <input type="radio" name="Year" value=15 />15 year<br> <input type="radio" name="Year" value=30 />30 year<br>

  15. <form name="fvForm" action=“computeFV.php"> Enter PV: <input id='PV' type="text" name="PV" value="" /><br> Select Rate: <select name="Rate"> <option value=0.04>4%</option> <option value=0.045>4.5%</option> <option value=0.05>5%</option> <option value=0.055>5.5%</option> <option value=0.06>6%</option> <option value=0.065>6.5%</option> <option value=0.07>7%</option> </select><br> Select Year: <br> <input type="radio" name="Year" value=10 />10 year<br> <input type="radio" name="Year" value=15 />15 year<br> <input type="radio" name="Year" value=30 />30 year<br> <br> Future Value: <input type="text" name="FV" /> <br> <input type=“submit" value="ComputeFV" name="btnCompute" /> </form> Note: We can assign an id to a HTML tag (element).

  16. HTML 5 • http://www.the-art-of-web.com/html/html5-form-validation/#.UdytIOLn_zc • http://diveintohtml5.info/forms.html • http://24ways.org/2009/have-a-field-day-with-html5-forms/

  17. New INPUT types • INPUT type="number" • INPUT type="range” • Other types: • email, url, tel, etc Age: <input type="number" size="6" name="age" min="18" max="99" value="21"><br> Satisfaction: <input type="range" size="2" name="satisfaction" min="1" max="5" value="3">

  18. 'required' attribute • Example: Your Name: <input type="text" name="name" required>

  19. ‘placeholder’ Attribute • Placeholder attribute which lets us display a prompt or instructions inside the field. • Example: Email Address: <input type="email" name="email" required placeholder="Enter a valid email address">

  20. ‘pattern attribute’ • The pattern attribute uses a regular expression to validate the format of input data. • To accept text starting with http:// or https:// and at least one additional character: • pattern="https?://.+“ • Example: Website: <input type="url" name="website" required pattern="https?://.+">

  21. Cascading Style Sheets • Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a mechanism for adding style (e.g., fonts, colors, spacing) to Web documents. • A style sheet consists of a list of style rules. Each rule or rule-set consists of one or more selectors, and a declaration block.

  22. CSS Rule Syntax • A CSS rule has two main parts: a selector, and one or more declarations:

  23. A CSS declaration always ends with a semicolon, and declaration groups are surrounded by curly brackets.Example: p { color:red; text-align:center; }

  24. CSS MIME Type • Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) is an Internet standard of content type system. • CSS MIME type: • text/css • Example: referencing a CSS file using the <link> element inside the head section <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="main.css" />

  25. Three Ways to Insert CSS • External style sheet • Internal style sheet • Inline style

  26. External Style Sheet • An external style sheet can be written in any text editor. It should be saved with a .css extension. • An external style sheet is ideal when the style is applied to many pages. • Each page must link to the style sheet using the <link> tag. The <link> tag goes inside the head section: <head> <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="mystyle.css"> </head>

  27. Internal Style Sheet • An internal style sheet should be used when a single document has a unique style. You define internal styles in the head section of an HTML page, by using the <style> tag, like this: <head> <style> hr {color:sienna;} p {margin-left:20px;} body {background-image:url("images/back40.gif");} </style> </head> Note: Do not add a space between the property value and the unit (such as margin-left:20 px). The correct way is: margin-left:20px

  28. Inline Styles • An inline style loses many of the advantages of style sheets by mixing content with presentation. Use this method sparingly! • To use inline styles you use the style attribute in the relevant tag. • Example: <p style="color:sienna;margin-left:20px">This is a paragraph.</p>

  29. HTML Element as Selector • Apply to all elements of a specific type: • H1 { color: blue; } • p {color:red;text-align:center;}

  30. Example <head> <title></title> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8"> <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="mystyle.css"> </head> <body> <div> <h1> This is h1 text</h1><br> <h3> This is h3 text</h3><br> <h6> This is h6 text</h6><br> <h1> This is h1 text again</h1><br> <h3> This is h3 text again</h3><br> <h6> This is h6 text again</h6><br> <br> <p> This is the P tag data</p> </div> </body> H1 { color: blue; } H3 {color:green;} H6 {color:red;} p {color:red;text-align:center;}

  31. ID as a selector • The id selector is used to specify a style for a single, unique element identified by the id attribute of the HTML element. • The selector is with a preceding '#': • Example: • A HTML element : <div id=“mycontent"> • The style rule is: #mycontent { width: 450px; margin: 0 auto; padding: 15px; background: white; border: 2px solid navy; }

  32. Class As Selector • The class selector is used to specify a style for a group of elements. The class selector uses the HTML class attribute to set a particular style for many HTML elements with the same class. • The class selector is defined with a "."

  33. Examples of Class Selector • Example 1: All HTML elements with class="center" will be center-aligned: • HTML: <h1 class="center">Center-aligned heading</h1> • Style: with a preceding “.” .center{ text-align:center; } • Example 2: In the example below, all p elements with class="center" will be center-aligned: • p.center {text-align:center;} • Example 3: Only ul elements will use the “nav” class. • HTML: <ul class="nav"> • Style: ul.nav { list-style-type: none; margin-left: 0; padding-left: 0; }

  34. Example <body> <div id="mycontent"> <h1> This is h1 text</h1><br> <h3 class="center"> This is h3 text</h3><br> <h6> This is h6 text</h6><br> <h1> This is h1 text again</h1><br> <h3 class="center"> This is h3 text again</h3><br> <h6> This is h6 text again</h6><br> <br> <p> This is the P tag data</p> <p class="left">This is the 2nd P tag data</p> </div> </body> .center{ text-align:center; } p.left{text-align:left;}

  35. Pseudo Class Selector:pseudo-classes are used to add special effects to some selectors. For example, change color when mouse is over the element, a:hover {color:#FF00FF;} • table:hover {color:red;} • td:hover {color:blue;} • p:hover{color:blue;} • See list of pseudo-classess such as link, visited, focus, etc.: http://www.w3schools.com/css/css_pseudo_classes.asp

  36. The CSS Box Model • All HTML elements can be considered as boxes. In CSS, the term "box model" is used when talking about design and layout. • The CSS box model is essentially a box that wraps around HTML elements, and it consists of: margins, borders, padding, and the actual content.

  37. box model

  38. Explanation of the different parts of a box • Margin - Clears an area around the border. The margin does not have a background color, it is completely transparent • Border - A border that goes around the padding and content. The border is affected by the background color of the box • Padding - Clears an area around the content. The padding is affected by the background color of the box • Content - The content of the box, where text and images appear

  39. Example width:250px; padding:10px; border:5px solid gray; margin:10px; The total width of the element in the example is 300px: 250px (width) + 20px (left + right padding) + 10px (left + right border) + 20px (left + right margin) = 300px

  40. Example: Define a box for a P tag: p{color:red;text-align:center; width:250px; padding:10px; border:5px solid gray; margin:10px; }

  41. Example: Page View

  42. HTML Code <body> <div id=“mycontent"> <h1>Product Discount Calculator</h1> <form action="display_discount.php" method="post"> <div id=“mydata"> <label>Product Description:</label> <input type="text" name="product_description"/><br /> <label>List Price:</label> <input type="text" name="list_price"/><br /> <label>Discount Percent:</label> <input type="text" name="discount_percent"/>%<br /> </div> <div id="buttons"> <label>&nbsp;</label> <input type="submit" value="Calculate Discount" /><br /> </div> </form> </div> </body>

  43. body { font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; margin: 10px; padding: 0; } #mycontent { width: 450px; margin: 0 auto; padding: 15px; background: white; border: 2px solid navy; } h1 { color: navy; } label { width: 10em; padding-right: 1em; float: left; } #mydata input { float: left; width: 15em; margin-bottom: .5em; } #buttons input { float: left; margin-bottom: .5em; } br { clear: left; }

  44. CSS Font-Size: em vs. px vs. pt vs. percenthttp://kyleschaeffer.com/user-experience/css-font-size-em-vs-px-vs-pt-vs/ • An em is equal to the current font-size, for instance, if the font-size of the document is 12pt, 1em is equal to 12pt. Ems are scalable in nature, so 2em would equal 24pt, .5em would equal 6pt, etc. • Generally, 1em = 12pt = 16px = 100%