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Open Source Software (OSS). Overview. A Very Brief History. 1984: Richard Stallman develops GNU and releases it under a GPL license 1991: Linus Torvalds releases Linux under GPL Today: 100,000 projects in Sourceforge 1.1M registered Sourceforge users (www.sourceforge.net)

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Open Source Software (OSS)


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    1. Open Source Software (OSS) Overview DSpace Federation Governance Advisory Board Meeting

    2. A Very Brief History • 1984: Richard Stallman develops GNU and releases it under a GPL license • 1991: Linus Torvalds releases Linux under GPL • Today: • 100,000 projects in Sourceforge • 1.1M registered Sourceforge users (www.sourceforge.net) • Projects like Linux and Firefox erode market share from proprietary vendors DSpace Federation Governance Advisory Board Meeting

    3. What Is Open Source? • Freely available for others to use, view and modify • But It’s More Than Just Free and Open Software • A software development model • A set of software licenses • A catalyst for new businesses and new business models • A force that is accelerating software commoditization (Hein, 2004) DSpace Federation Governance Advisory Board Meeting

    4. OSS Development Model • Decentralized, community-led • Release “early, and often” • Community of programmers contribute to maintenance and development • Users traditionally were programmers and vice-versa • Users work on aspects useful to them and contribute back any broadly useful developments • Distributed responsibility for quality assurance DSpace Federation Governance Advisory Board Meeting

    5. OSS Licenses • GPL • LGPL • MIT/BSD • Other derivations of these three (Hein, 2004) DSpace Federation Governance Advisory Board Meeting

    6. New Businesses and Business Models Commercial vendors are responding through: • Dual-license subscriptions • Service and support offerings • Implementation and integration services • Other value-added services DSpace Federation Governance Advisory Board Meeting

    7. Commoditizing Software Open Source is commoditizing the stack, from the bottom up • Ripe for commoditization: • Well defined by standards • Large audience of developers and users • Less innovation/ more adaptation • “Good enough” for the task and delivers 10x benefit Applications Application server, database File, print, web server Operating System (Hein, 2004) DSpace Federation Governance Advisory Board Meeting

    8. Benefits of OSS • It’s free! (like a free puppy) • Transparency encourages higher quality software • Greater control and input into the development process • Allows user customization DSpace Federation Governance Advisory Board Meeting

    9. Higher Education Software Market • Small market with specialized needs • Dependency on commercial software vendors • Poor adaptations to higher education’s needs • Market control by few vendors • Inflated prices • Poor quality • Lack of input to development process • Build In-House v. Buy v. Collaborate DSpace Federation Governance Advisory Board Meeting

    10. Higher Education OSS Projects Identity and Access Management Personal Info. Manager Object Libraries Scholarly Information Systems Digital Repositories Portals Learning Management Systems Portfolios Scholarly Publishing Content Managers Library Catalog (Lambert, 2005) DSpace Federation Governance Advisory Board Meeting

    11. Higher Education OSS Projects Shib, PubCookie, Signet Chandler OKI Scholarly Information Systems DSpace uPortal, CampusEAI Sakai, Moodle, Pachyderm EPortfolio OKI Zope, LionShare Fedora (Lambert, 2005) DSpace Federation Governance Advisory Board Meeting

    12. Is OSS the Solution for Higher Education ? It is a promising alternative, but concerns exist: • Lack of formal support structure • Economic stability • Reiterative governance infrastructures • Total cost of ownership • Legal issues • Free-riders • Applicability to end-user software DSpace Federation Governance Advisory Board Meeting