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  1. Jellied Products Jelly, Jam, Preserves, Conserves and Marmalades

  2. Overview • Jellied products • Ingredients in jellied products • Equipment and supplies • Basic steps

  3. Jellied Products • Jelly, jam, preserves, conserves, marmalades • Most preserved by sugar • Characteristics vary with fruit • Clarity, color, consistency and flavor

  4. Jelly • Cook fruit juice with sugar (also uncooked recipes) • With or without pectin • Clear or translucent (depending on juice) • No sediment, pulp or crystals • Holds shape when turned out of container Photograph from National Center for Home Food Preservation

  5. Jams • Thick, sweet spreads • Chopped or crushed fruit cooked with sugar (or use uncooked recipes) • Holds shape, but less firm than jellies Photograph from National Center for Home Food Preservation

  6. Preserves • Small, uniform pieces of fruit • Clear, slightly gelled syrup

  7. Conserves • Similar to preserves • Combination of fruits cooked with sugar • Add coconut, nuts, raisins

  8. Marmalades • Soft fruit jellies • Contain small pieces of fruit or peel evenly suspended in the transparent jelly • Often contain citrus fruit

  9. Other Products • Butters • Sweet spreads • Cook fruit pulp with sugar, add spices • Honeys • Syrups

  10. How are jellied products preserved? • High sugar content • Loss of water during cooking • Acidity of products • Cooking

  11. Prevent molds and yeast • Grow in an acid environment--like jellies • Molds can produce mycotoxins that may be harmful • Some people are sensitive to mold due to allergies and respiratory problems • Easily destroyed at 140o to 190o F

  12. Using paraffin to seal • Not recommended • Mold can grow under the paraffin and grow down into product

  13. Ingredients • Fruit • Pectin • Acid • Sugar

  14. Fruit • Contributes color and flavor • Contributes some or all of pectin and acid • Use fresh, canned or frozen fruit or fruit juice (no added sugar)

  15. Pectin • Causes fruit to gel • Sources of pectin • Naturally in fruit • Commercial pectin - Apple pectin - Citrus pectin

  16. Pectin • Amount varies with fruit and degree of ripeness • Just ripe fruit has best quality pectin • Under-ripe and over-ripe fruit will not gel well • Jellies often need added pectin to hold their shape

  17. Pectin • Commercial pectin • Liquid • Dry • Advantages • Cooking time is set and is shorter • Greater yield from same amount of fruit

  18. Pectin • Store in a cool, dry place • Observe “use-by” dates • Buy a 1-year supply • Modified pectin for reduced sugar products • No added sugar • Less added sugar than regular recipes

  19. Acid • Needed for gel formation • Provides flavor • Higher in under-ripe fruits • Add lemon juice or citric acid to increase acidity

  20. Pectin and Acid in Fruits These fruits do not require extra pectin or acid: Grapes (Eastern Concord) Lemons Loganberries Plums (not Italian) Quinces • Apples, sour • Blackberries, sour • Crabapples • Cranberries • Currants • Gooseberries

  21. Pectin and Acid in Fruits These fruits may need pectin or acid: Grape Juice, bottled (Eastern Concord) Grapes (California) Loquats Oranges • Apples, ripe • Blackberries, ripe • Cherries, sour • Chokeberries • Elderberries • Grapefruit

  22. Pectin and Acid in Fruits These fruits always need added pectin, acid, or both: Peaches Pears Plums (Italian) Raspberries Strawberries • Apricots • Blueberries • Figs • Grapes (Western Concord) • Guavas

  23. Sugar Use granulated white sugar • Works with pectin and acid to make gel • Acts as a preservative • Contributes to taste

  24. To reduce sugar • Modified pectin • Some need no sugar • Others need some sugar • May use an artificial sweetener • Processed like regular jellied products • Regular pectin with special recipes • Formulated using regular pectin, without added sugar • Regular pectin has some sugar • Stored for short time in the refrigerator (or frozen)

  25. To reduce sugar • Recipes using gelatin • Unflavored gelatin thickens product • Can use artificial sweeteners • Stored in refrigerator • Long-boil recipes • Boil fruit pulp for long periods • Can use artificial sweeteners • Processed like regular jellied products Photograph from National Center for Home Food Preservation

  26. Splenda® • Does not provide preservative properties like sugar • Use as the optional sweetener in a jam or jelly made with a no-sugar needed pectin for flavor • Do not use in long-boil or no-pectin-added jams and jellies intended for room temperature storage

  27. Required Proper Ratio • Fruit • Pectin • Acid • Sugar • DO NOT alter ingredients or proportions… • poor gel or no gel • mold formation

  28. Equipment and Supplies • Large saucepot • Jelly bag or cloth • Jelly, candy or deep fat thermometer • Boiling water-bath canner • ½ pint or pint Mason-type jars with two-piece lids

  29. Basic Steps • Fill water-bath canner and heat to 140 to 180o F • Wash and sterilize canning jars and rings (keep jars warm) • Treat canning lids according to manufacturer’s directions

  30. Basic Steps • Prepare recipe (boil rapidly) • Skim foam if necessary • Pour hot product into jars leaving ¼- inch of headspace • Wipe jar rim and add treated lid and screw band • Process according to length of time in recipe directions

  31. Basic Steps • Remove from water-bath canner and do not move jars for 12 hours • After 12 hours check for desired consistency and proper seal • If not satisfied, you can remake

  32. Jelly Principles • Do not alter recipe • Follow procedures for low-sugar or no-sugar products (don’t just reduce sugar) • Use good quality fruit, most should be just-ripe • Process in a water-bath canner • Use within a year for best quality