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## Basic spreadsheet commands

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**(note on powerpoint)**• These powerpoint slides were made using the following menu options: • View -- normal • Insert -- new slide • Format -- slide format, and choosing the one that allows a title and notes**Before you sit at the computer**• 1. Make sure you have a task that motivates you to persist in learning Excel (or an equivalent spreadsheet program). • 2. Design your spreadsheet on paper, including the kinds of calculations you need to do. • 3. Arrange assistance from someone more advanced in using Excel. • 4. Arrange convenient access to a computer with Excel installed.**Keyboard shortcuts**• There are keyboard shortcuts for commonly used commands in the menus. On a windows machine these involve holding down the Control key in combination with those below. On a MAC, the Command (apple) key with the others, e.g., • C for copy • X for cut • V for paste in what you have copied or cut • P for print • S for save (do this often)**Additional shortcuts**Control or Command (apple) plus • I for insert blank cell(s) or row(s) or column(s) • K for delete the selected cell(s) or row(s) or column(s) • Z to undo your last command**A grade sheet exercise**• Type the students names in columns A & B from row 3 downwards • List your assignments in row 2 from column 3 to the right If you plan 10 assignments then in cell M3 type =sum(c3:l3), which will add up the grades for that student • Now select cell M3 by clicking on it, copy it into the computer’s memory using the copy command, and paste it into cells M4 to the end of the students.**Bells & whistles 1**• Convert grades in col. M to % in col. N • Typing the maximum grade possible in M2 • In N3 type =m3/m$2*100 • Copy and paste this formula into the cells below N3 • The formula in cell N4 will read m4/m$2*100, and so on**Bells & whistles 2**• To round off to nearest number, select the cells you wish to round off • Pull down the format menu, and (depending on version of excel being used) look for number or cells then number • Choose the option with no decimal places**Making s’sheets understandable**• Include notes or comments that explain your spreadsheet. These can be hidden behind a cell using the insert comment or note menu option. • When trying to decipher someone else’s spreadsheet formulas, write out on paper what they do in words.**Other standard formulas**• E.g., average, standard deviation, maximum, minimum • Explore under the Sigma or f symbol on the tool bar. If your version doesn’t have these, look for functions • E.g., max (c3:l3) would supply the highest grade that student got**IF formulas**• IF formulas allow you to do useful tricks. E.g., in O4 you might type IF (N4<50, “Fail”, “Pass”) which means if grade (as percentage) is less than 50 the cell O4 will show the word Fail; otherwise it will show Pass. Try it and see.**Exploration**• If there’s something else you’d like to do, either • 1. Ask a person with more experience to show you (and add in some other tricks if you have time to take them in), or • 2. Explore the different items in the menus and tool bars (sometimes the help menu can help you, but asking a person is better)**More complex spreadsheets**• Complexity in spreadsheets is less a matter of learning Excel commands than of what you want to calculate. Plan this on paper before you open the software (which I should have had you do in the thermostat exercise).**(More complex powerpoint presentations)**would explain everything in the preceding show using visual images, not simply text, and allow animations such as this on this slide (created using Menu option: Slide show, animation, fly in). • But more time is needed to compose such a presentation.