slide1 l.
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
The Impacts of Proposed Education Minimum Service Standards on a Sample of Districts in Indonesia Stephen Dunn January 1

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 26

The Impacts of Proposed Education Minimum Service Standards on a Sample of Districts in Indonesia Stephen Dunn January 1 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 145 Views
  • Uploaded on

The Impacts of Proposed Education Minimum Service Standards on a Sample of Districts in Indonesia Stephen Dunn January 13, 2005. Overview. “Snapshot” of Indonesia and Districts “Pre-History” of Decentralization in Indonesia The Era of Decentralization

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'The Impacts of Proposed Education Minimum Service Standards on a Sample of Districts in Indonesia Stephen Dunn January 1' - faye


Download Now An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide1

The Impacts of Proposed Education Minimum Service Standards on a Sample of Districts in Indonesia

Stephen Dunn

January 13, 2005

overview
Overview
  • “Snapshot” of Indonesia and Districts
  • “Pre-History” of Decentralization in Indonesia
  • The Era of Decentralization
  • Motivation for Minimum Service Standards
  • Overview of Proposed Minimum Service Standards
  • Study and Results
  • Conclusions, Issues, Looking Forward
snapshot of indonesia
Snapshot of Indonesia
  • Population 214.5 million (WB, 2003)
  • 14,000 islands
  • 3,000 miles east-to-west
  • 43% urban (WB, 2002)
  • Life expectancy at birth 66.7 Years, (WB, 2002)
  • GDP per capita $971 (WB, 2003)
  • Poverty Headcount Index 16% (WB, 2002)
snapshot of districts
Snapshot of Districts
  • 420 Districts
  • District Populations from <25,000 to Over 4 Million
  • Environments from “Metro” to isolated, agricultural
  • Poverty Headcount Index from >90% to <2% (SUSENAS, 2002)
  • Annual Per Capita Own-Source Revenues from nearly Rp 1 million to below Rp 5,000 (WB, 2001)
snapshot of district education
Snapshot of District Education
  • Primary NER: 91% for lowest-income districts 91% for highest-income districts
  • Sen. Sec. NER: 18% for lowest-income districts 62% for highest-income districts

(WB, 2002)

  • Per-Student APBD Education Expenditure Range: minimum < Rp 50,000 maximum > Rp 300,000

(author’s data)

pre history of decentralization in indonesia
“Pre-History” of Decentralization in Indonesia
  • Prior to 1999 Laws, Highly Centralized Government
  • Low Control of Own-Resources
  • Deconcentrated Sectoral Offices in Districts
  • Limited District Autonomy
  • Little Scope for Local Choice in Service Delivery
the era of decentralization overview
The Era of DecentralizationOverview
  • Motivations for Decentralization
  • Decentralization to District Level
  • Laws 22, 25 of 1999 and “Big Bang” in 2001
  • Assets Transferred to Districts
  • Local Planning and Budgeting
  • New Revenue Streams: DAU and DAK
  • Share of Sub-National Spending Doubled
the era of decentralization finance and management of education
The Era of DecentralizationFinance and Management of Education
  • Education managed at district and school level
  • DAU is primary source of district funds
  • Education competes for district resources with other sectors
  • There are numerous other funding streams
  • Large amount of district autonomy, emerging school autonomy
motivation for education minimum service standards
Motivation forEducation Minimum Service Standards
  • Education is a national concern
  • Desire to increase equity across districts
  • Indonesia has low achievement relative to peers
  • Political-Economic Aspects
overview of proposed education minimum service standards
Overview of ProposedEducation Minimum Service Standards

SPM cover:

  • formal education (grades 1-12)
  • equivalent out-of-school education
  • pre-school
  • sports
  • “youth participation” / “social participation”
  • special education
  • teacher/school development and management
overview of proposed education minimum service standards11
Overview of ProposedEducation Minimum Service Standards
  • Large number of SPM (297)
  • Some SPM are conflicting or internally inconsistent
  • “Education” SPM cover many non-education areas
  • Districts do not collect much of the data needed
perform study overview
PERFORM StudyOverview
  • Goal: understand expenditure implications of SPM
  • Team: PERFORM staff, MOF, RTI
  • SPM focus: formal education (grades 1-12)
  • * Districts: 15 districts from 10 provinces
  • * Model: policy options projection model
  • * Results: projections from 2002-2017, “lower bound”
perform study policy options projection model
PERFORM Studypolicy options projection model
  • User can set policy/functional parameters (SPM) and examine impacts
  • A “what if?” model to examine policy impacts
  • Single district focus, output for 15 districts
  • District base data
  • Projections over 2002-2017
  • Results for many variables/indicators
results overview
ResultsOverview
  • Interpretation of Results
  • Total Expenditure
  • Expenditure by Level
  • Expenditure by Type
  • Enrollment Indicators, Teachers, Classrooms, Books, Teacher and Classroom Upgrading
results expenditure
ResultsExpenditure
  • Proposed SPM result in a 54% increase in district expenditure on education by the year 2007 (“lower bound” estimate of SPM impact)
  • Expenditure impact varies significantly across districts
  • Within districts, expenditure impact varies dramatically for different levels of education
conclusions
Conclusions
  • If implemented, the proposed SPM would result in large expenditure increases for many districts
  • Achievement of SPM would require substantial level-specific actions/changes for each district
  • Time as well as money will be required
issues questions
Issues/Questions
  • Are the proposed SPM Affordable?
  • Are the SPM really “minimum service standards”?
  • Should all districts be subject to the same SPM?
  • Should SPM apply to all of education or to particular aspects?
  • What about empowerment of schools, school committees, and district education boards?
  • Why are the enrollment SPM not met?
  • How to finance SPM?
  • How to hold districts accountable for meeting SPM?
looking forward
Looking Forward
  • Before promulgation, more analysis: financial and educationist perspectives
  • Definition of obligatory functions within education
  • Tsunami Impacts? focus, spending priorities, timeframe
ad