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CS 380S. 0x1A Great Papers in Computer Security. Vitaly Shmatikov. http://www.cs.utexas.edu/~shmat/courses/cs380s/. H. Nissenbaum Privacy as Contextual Integrity (Washington Law Review 2004). Common-Law Right to Privacy. Characterized by Samuel Warren and Louis Brandeis (1890)

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0x1a great papers in computer security

CS 380S

0x1A Great Papers inComputer Security

Vitaly Shmatikov

http://www.cs.utexas.edu/~shmat/courses/cs380s/

common law right to privacy
Common-Law Right to Privacy
  • Characterized by Samuel Warren and Louis Brandeis (1890)
  • “An individual’s right of determining, ordinarily, to what extent his thoughts, sentiments, and emotions shall be communicated to others”
definitions of privacy 1
Definitions of Privacy (1)
  • “Privacy is not simply an absence of information about us in the minds of others; rather it is the control we have over information about ourselves” --Charles Fried
  • “Privacy is a limitation of others’ access to an individual through information, attention, or physical proximity” --Ruth Gavison
  • “Privacy is the right to control information about and access to oneself” -- Priscilla Regan
definitions of privacy 2
Definitions of Privacy (2)
  • "Privacy is the claim of individuals, groups, or institutions to determine for themselves when, how, and to what extend information about them is communicated to others”
  • “...privacy is the voluntary and temporary withdrawal of a person from the general society through physical or psychological means, either in a state of solitude or small-group intimacy or, when among larger groups, in a condition of anonymity or reserve”
      • A. Westin. “Privacy and Freedom” (1967)
three guiding legal principles
Three Guiding Legal Principles
  • Protecting privacy of individuals against intrusive government agents
    • 1st, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 9th, 14th amendments, Privacy Act (1974)
  • Restricting access to sensitive, personal, or private information
    • FERPA, Right to Financial Privacy Act, Video Privacy Protection Act, HIPAA
  • Curtailing intrusions into spaces or spheres deemed private or personal
    • 3rd, 4th amendments
gray areas
Gray Areas
  • Private vs. public space
  • USA PATRIOT Act
  • “Credit headers”
    • Basic information in a credit report about the person to whom the credit report applies - name, variations of names, current and prior addresses, phone number, date of birth, SSN
  • Online privacy in the workplace
downsides of three principles
Downsides of Three Principles
  • Not conditioned on additional dimensions
    • Time, location, etc.
  • Privacy based on dichotomies
    • Private – public
    • Sensitive – non-sensitive
    • Government – private

modern privacy threats
Modern Privacy Threats
  • Automated capture of enhanced/large amounts of information
    • RFID tags, EZ Pass, online tracking, video surveillance, DRM, etc.
  • Consumer profiling, data mining, aggregation
    • ChoicePoint, Census, credit bureaus, etc.
  • Public records online
    • Courts, county clerks, etc.
    • Local vs. global access of data
contextual integrity
Contextual Integrity

Philosophical account of privacy

  • Aims to describe what people care about

Main idea: every transfer of personal information happens in a certain social context

Context-dependent norms govern the type of information and the principles of transmission

  • Information is categorized by type
    • Example: personal health information, psychiatric records, …
    • Rejects public/private dichotomy
  • Principles of transmission depend on context
    • Confidentiality, reciprocity, etc
cornerstone norms
Cornerstone Norms
  • Norms of appropriateness determine what types of informationare or are not appropriate for a given context
  • Norms of distribution determine the principles governing flow or transfer of information from one party to another
    • Volunteered, inferred, mandated, expected, demanded, etc.
    • Discretion, entitlement, third-party confidentiality, commercial exchange, reciprocal vs. one-way, etc.
privacy as contextual integrity
Privacy as Contextual Integrity
  • Contextual integrity is respected when norms of appropriateness and distribution are respected
  • It is violated when any of the norms are infringed
example gramm leach bliley

Sender role

Attribute

Subject role

Transmission principle

Example: Gramm-Leach-Bliley

Financial institutions must notify consumers if they share their non-public personal information with non-affiliated companies, but the notification may occur either before or after the information sharing occurs

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