syntax 1 day 30 nov 6 2013 n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
syntax 1 DAY 30 – nov 6, 2013 PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
syntax 1 DAY 30 – nov 6, 2013

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 18

syntax 1 DAY 30 – nov 6, 2013 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 105 Views
  • Uploaded on

syntax 1 DAY 30 – nov 6, 2013. Brain & Language LING 4110-4890-5110-7960 NSCI 4110-4891-6110 Harry Howard Tulane University. Course organization. The syllabus, these slides and my recordings are available at http://www.tulane.edu/~howard/LING4110/ .

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'syntax 1 DAY 30 – nov 6, 2013' - fay


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
syntax 1 day 30 nov 6 2013

syntax 1DAY 30 – nov 6, 2013

Brain & Language

LING 4110-4890-5110-7960

NSCI 4110-4891-6110

Harry Howard

Tulane University

course organization
Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane UniversityCourse organization
  • The syllabus, these slides and my recordings are available at http://www.tulane.edu/~howard/LING4110/.
  • If you want to learn more about EEG and neurolinguistics, you are welcome to participate in my lab. This is also a good way to get started on an honor's thesis.
  • The grades are posted to Blackboard.
summary of lateralization of word semantics
Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane UniversitySummary of lateralization of word semantics

LH

RH

Slowly selects multiple meanings (divergent processing) that are weakly associated.

Primes words that share few semantic features > loosely associated words.

Primes the less frequent meaning of an ambiguous word.

Primes function, collectives, goal-oriented classes.

Priming stays same with more words.

Priming is same for unstructured sentences.

Priming is same for incongruent sentences.

  • Quickly selects most familiar or dominant meaning (convergent processing) while suppressing other less closely related meanings.
  • Primes words that share many semantic features > closely associated words.
  • Primes the most frequent meaning of an ambiguous word.
  • Primes category, but not others.
  • Priming is faster with more words.
  • Priming is slower for unstructured sentences.
  • Priming is slower for incongruent sentences.
two types of semantic processing
Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane UniversityTwo types of semantic processing

Convergent semantic processing

Divergent semantic processing

… in linguistic tasks which elicit a wide number of responses.

In such tasks, subjects must produce alternate meanings or list as many items as possible.

For instance, the experiment just mentioned can be continued by asking the subject to supply yet another verb, resulting in a response such as ‘(to) throw’.

  • … in linguistic tasks which elicit a limited number of responses.
  • In such tasks, subjects must suppress alternate meanings or select a single best item from many choices.
  • For instance, a subject may be presented with a noun such as ‘hammer’ and be asked to supply a verb, giving the response ‘(to) pound’.
summary of lateralization of phonology
Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane UniversitySummary of lateralization of phonology

LHsmall window of temporal integration

no overlap between windows

RH

large window of temporal integration

overlap between windows

low temporal frequency:

slow cues, like vowels

low spectral frequency:

fundamental

graded/coordinate distinctions:

emotional intonation,

sentence type?

  • high temporal frequency:
    • rapid cues, like stops
  • high spectral frequency:
    • formants
  • categorical distinctions:
    • lexical, phrasal, clausal stress;
    • lexical tone in Thai/Chinese
a conversion to resolution
Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane UniversityA conversion to resolution

Left hemisphere, fine coding:

9 neurons index 9 regions of space

Right hemisphere, coarse coding:

4 neurons index 12+ regions of space

linguistic model fig 2 1 p 37
Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane UniversityLinguistic model, Fig. 2.1 p. 37

Discourse model

Semantics

Sentence level

Syntax

Sentence prosody

Word level

Morphology

Word prosody

Segmental phonology

perception

Segmental phonology

production

Acoustic phonetics Feature extraction

Articulatory phonetics Speech motor control

INPUT

what is syntactic processing
Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane UniversityWhat is syntactic processing?
  • “Narrowly defined, syntactic processing involves the assignment of syntactic structure to word strings that qualify as a ‘sentences’”. (p. 244)
what is a sentence
Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane UniversityWhat is a sentence?
  • Some definitions
    • A complete thought.
      • Mary kissed John.
      • Mary kissed.
      • Mary.
      • Kissed.
      • Kissed John.
    • A subject and a predicate.
      • Mary kissed John.
      • Mary kissed.
      • Mary.
      • Kissed.
      • Kissed John.
    • A string of words starting with a capital letter and ending with a period.
what we said at the beginning
Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane UniversityWhat we said at the beginning
  • S = NP VP, or
  • [S NP VP]
  • [S Mary [VP kissed John]]

S

NP

Mary

VP

V

kissed

NP

John

slide15
Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane UniversityBut …
  • … we very often utter incomplete sentences:
    • Who kissed John?
    • Mary.
    • What did Mary do?
    • Kiss John.
  • So the missing information can be filled in by the context:
    • Who kissed John?
    • [S Mary [VPØ]]
    • What did Mary do?
    • [S[NPØ] [VPkiss John]]
what is a grammar
Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane UniversityWhat is a grammar?
  • “A grammar is an explicit set of rules for distinguishing the well-formed sentences of a language from those that are ill-formed (ungrammatical).” (p. 245)
  • We have already seen a fragment of a grammar of English:
    • S → NP VP
    • VP→ V NP
  • Which of these strings are ill-formed (ungrammatical), according to this grammar?
    • Mary kissed John.
    • Mary kissed.
    • Mary.
    • Kissed.
    • Kissed John.

*

*

*

*

another example
Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane UniversityAnother example
  • Let’s change to Ingram’s example, “A cat is on the couch.”
  • We need to augment our grammar:
    • NP → Det N, where Det is one of {a(n), the, some}
    • VP → V PP
    • PP → P NP, where P is one of {on, in, at, by, etc.}
  • Write down the syntactic structure for Ingram’s example:
    • [S[NP a cat] [VPis [PP on [NPthe couch]]]]

S

VP

NP

a cat

V

is

PP

on the couch

next time
Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane UniversityNEXT TIME

Continue with §12 Sentence comprehension and syntactic parsing