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Comma Splices Fused sentences Run-on Sentences Fixing Fragments. Improving your writing. Definition of a Clause: part of a sentence with its own subject and predicate Definition of Predicate: unit of a verb and all words modifying the verb - example: is here in Larry is here .

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Comma splices fused sentences run on sentences fixing fragments

Comma Splices

Fused sentences

Run-on Sentences

Fixing Fragments

Improving your writing


Clause refresher

  • Definition of a Clause: part of a sentence with its own subject and predicate

  • Definition of Predicate: unit of a verb and all words modifying the verb - example: is herein Larry is here.

  • Clause Example: The sentence

    ‘Mary has a friend who is rich‘

    contains a main clause and

    a subordinate clause(one that relies on the main for meaning)

  • Which is which? WHY???

Clause Refresher


Fix those bad sentences

  • Definitions of a comma splice and a fused sentence: subject and predicate

  • A comma splice contains two main clauses illegally joined by a comma. The problem looks like this:

    main clause + , + another main clause = COMMA SPLICE.

  • A fused sentence, on the other hand, contains two main clauses illegally run together with no punctuation. The problem looks like this:

    main clause + another main clause = FUSED SENTENCE.

fix those bad sentences!!!


More professional writing

Comma splices and fused sentences make you look like an amateur because they tell your reader that you cannot control the construction of a sentence.

So, how do you make your writing more professional???

Julie is a real hypochondriac when her stomach hurts, she is certain that she has a bleeding ulcer, and if she has a backache, she believes that she has cancer of the spine.

First - Is this sentence a comma splice?

Or is it a fused sentence?

WHY???

NOW – how do we fix it?

More professional writing


Strategy 1 make two complete sentences

  • Because comma splices and fused sentences contain two amateur because they tell your reader that you cannot control the construction of a sentence.main clauses, you can always

    add a period at the end of the first clause then

    begin the second with a capital letter.

  • Grandma still rides her Harley motorcycle her toy poodle balances in a basket between the handlebars.

  • Correct the above sentence

    with Strategy #1.

Strategy 1 —Make two complete sentences.


Strategy 2 use a comma and a coordinating conjunction

There are seven amateur because they tell your reader that you cannot control the construction of a sentence.coordinating conjunctions.

Some students remember the seven by learning the word fanboys.

Each of the seven letters of fanboysstands for one of the coordinating conjunctions.

F= for

A = and

N= nor

B = but

O = or

Y = yet

S = so

Strategy 2 — Use a comma anda coordinating conjunction.


Fix the problem with strategy 2

  • Remember that you must use a amateur because they tell your reader that you cannot control the construction of a sentence.coordinating conjunction that logically joins the two complete sentences.

  • But, for example, would not work in the example below because the writer is NOT showing contrast.

  • Teamed up with a comma, the seven coordinating conjunctions can correctly join two main clauses.

  • Correct the example sentence

    with Strategy 2:

    Grandma still rides her Harley

    motorcycle her toy poodle

    balances in a basket between

    the handlebars.

fix the problem with Strategy 2


Strategy 3 use a semicolon

  • Unlike a comma, a amateur because they tell your reader that you cannot control the construction of a sentence.semicolonIS a strong

    enough mark of punctuation to join

    two main clauses.

  • Keep these things in mind when you use a semicolon:

    - 1) The two main clauses that the semicolon joins should be closely related in meaning.

    - 2) Do NOT capitalize the word that follows the semicolon UNLESS that word is a proper noun, which is always capitalized anyway.

Strategy 3 — Use a semicolon.


Correct the example sentence with Strategy 3: amateur because they tell your reader that you cannot control the construction of a sentence.

Grandma still rides her Harley motorcycle her toy poodle balances in a basket between the handlebars.

Good writers mix things up!

KEEP IN MIND:

Limit your use of semicolons;

you should not wantonly scatter

them throughout your writing.


Strategy 4 use a conjunction

First, here is a list to remind you of conjunctions we have covered before:

After although as

because before even if

even though in order that If

once provided that rather than

since so that than

that though unless

until when whenever

where whereas wherever

whether while why

Strategy 4 — Use a conjunction.


Using conjunctions

  • When you are fixing a comma splice or fused sentence, covered before:subordinating conjunctions can be the most tricky to use.

  • There are two reasons they are tricky:

    • 1) there are many to choose from, and

    • 2) you must use the right punctuation.

      Now fix original problem sentence using Strategy 4:

  • Grandma still rides her Harley motorcycle her toy poodle balances in a basket between the handlebars.

Using conjunctions


A good writer can fix problem sentences using covered before:all four strategies:

  • adding a period and a capital letter

  • using a comma and a conjunction

  • joining the two main clauses with a semicolon

  • subordinating one part with a subordinate conjunction.

  • Now it is your turn. With a partner, correct the following sentence with each of the four strategies you just learned.

    http://www.chompchomp.com/rules/csfsrules.htm

    Most Freshmen feel overwhelmed by the workload in their college courses they usually spend more time socializing then studying


Check ms bailey

  • 1- covered before:Most freshmen feel overwhelmed by the workload in their college courses. They usually spend more time socializing than studying.

  • 2- Most freshmen feel overwhelmed by the workload in their college courses, because they usually spend more time socializing than studying.

  • 3- Most freshmen feel overwhelmed by the workload in their college courses; they usually spend more time socializing than studying.

  • 4- Most freshmen feel overwhelmed by the workload in their college courses, and usually spend more time socializing than studying.

Check Ms. Bailey


Run on sentences

The length of a sentence has nothing to do with whether or not a sentence is considered a run-on.

An over-exuberant, run-off-at-the-mouth, 400-word gorilla of a sentence can be structurally fine.

A run-on sentence is one in

which two clauses have

been connected incorrectly.

Run-On Sentences


Avoiding run on sentences

There are three situations in which run-on sentences are apt to happen:

1. When a pronoun in the second clause refers to a noun in the first clause:

The President’s popularity has plummeted, she apparently underestimated the opposition.

2.When a suggestion or directive occurs in the second clause:

You will be responsible for this material on the final exam, study it thoroughly now.

3.When two clauses are connected by a conjunction:

Many people think protectionism can halt rising prices, however, the opposite is actually true.

YIKERS!! FIX THESE SENTENCES!

Avoiding Run-on Sentences


Check yourself

1. apt to happen:The President’s popularity has plummeted, and sheapparently underestimated the opposition.

2.You will be responsible for this material on the final exam. Study it thoroughly now.

3.Many people think protectionism can halt rising prices; however, the opposite is actually true.

Check yourself

Charles Darling, PhD


Fragments

  • The first thing you MUST be able to do is recognize the difference between a sentence and a fragment.

  • Simply put:

    a fragment does NOT contain a main clause.

    When you analyze a group of words looking for the main clause, you have to find three things: a subject, a verb, and a complete thought.

    If one of these three items is missing, a fragment results.

Fragments


Examples of fragments

And yawned loudly enough to make everyone in class turn around.

NO subject; verb = yawned; NO complete thought.

The boy sitting on the fire escape dropping water balloons on the pedestrians below.

Subject = boy; NO verb; NO complete thought.

After Gabriel ate half a box of Devil Dogs.

Subject = Gabriel; verb = ate;

NO complete thought .

examples of fragments


Watch words for fragment identification

Here are the words to watch for that will begin many fragments:

After although asbecause before even ifeven though if in order thatonce provided that sinceso [thatis implied] so that than

that though unlessuntil when wheneverwhere whereas whereverwhether which whicheverwhile who whoeverwhom whomever whose

Anything Look Familiar?

Watch words for fragment identification


Correct that fragment a how to

1) fragments:add the necessary main clause

2) connect the fragment to a main clause already in the passage.

3) remove a subordinating conjunction

Remember: Whether you add

or connect, you must use the

right punctuation.

correct that fragment! A “how to”


Examples

  • Because Chase caught the eye of the beautiful brunette in algebra.

    Because = subordinate conjunction; Chase = subject; caught = verb.

    What happened? Was he able to cheat on the test? Did he quickly ask her for a date? The thought is incomplete.

  • Until Rachel notices the toilet paper stuck to her shoe.

    Until = subordinate conjunction; Rachel = subject; notices = verb.

    What will happen? Will she embarrass her date? Will people at the restaurant stare? Another incomplete thought.

  • Even though Fred stuck straws up his nose.

    Even though = subordinate conjunction; Fred = subject; stuck = verb.

    What happened? Could he still not pass as a walrus? Did the McDonald's manager offer him a job anyway? This thought is incomplete too!

Examples:


Some fragments begin or end with an ing or ed word

Sunning algebra. themselves on the hot concrete until they heard human feet crashing down the sidewalk.

Twirling the baton with the speed and ferocity of helicopter blades.

Sucked down the pipe with a hearty slurp.

Hidden in the bureau drawer underneath a pile of mismatched socks.

Some fragments begin or end with an “ing” or “ed” word


Infinitive phrase fragments

  • INFINITIVE Definition: to + verb algebra.

  • Although more words will follow to finish the phrase, you will not find a main clause to finish the thought.

  • An infinitive phrase—by itself—cannot be a sentence.

  • Examples of Infinitive Verb Fragments

  • Only to watch in dismay as Dr. Frazier poured her chemistry experiment into the sink.

  • To catch butterflies for her biology project.

  • To break a piece of plywood with his bare hands.

infinitive phrase fragments


Afterthought fragments

  • An afterthought does not contain a main clause algebra.

  • Watch for these words: especially, except, excluding, for example, for instance, including, like, and such as.

  • Examples of Afterthought Fragments:

  • For example, leaky pens, candy wrappers, dollar bills, and paperclips.

  • Including the dog with three legs and the cat with one eye.

  • Such as leaving the stove on and teasing mean dogs.

Afterthought Fragments


Lonely verb fragments

Writers will sometimes forget to algebra.

include a subject in a sentence.

The result is a verb pining for its partner.

A lonely verb fragment will often begin with a coordinating conjunction

and, but, for, or, nor, so, yet

The marker for a lonely verb fragment will be the immediate expression of action.

Remember that a verb alone cannot be a sentence.

Lonely Verb Fragments


Lonely verb fragments1

And dashed algebra.through the downpour as raindrops softened the hairspray shell holding her elaborate coif in place.

But knew that all of his effort would prove useless in the long run.

Took the thick book and, with a heavy sigh, loaded it on top of her research pile.

Lonely verb fragments


Appositive fragments

Appositive Definition: algebra.

a noun phrase that renames and clarifies another noun.

Because an appositive can be long, writers sometimes mistake them for a complete sentence.

By itself an appositive is not a sentence.

Appositive Fragments


Appositive fragment examples

The unprepared algebra.student who was always begging for an extra pencil and a couple sheets of blank paper.

A slacker wasting his afternoon

in front of the television.

A dog around whom people need

to guard their fingers and food.

Appositive fragment examples


Fix these fragment s

  • Because Chase caught the eye of the beautiful brunette in algebra.

  • Sunning themselves on the hot concrete until they heard human feet crashing down the sidewalk.

  • Only to watch in dismay as Dr. Frazier poured her chemistry experiment into the sink.

  • For example, leaky pens, candy wrappers, dollar bills, and paperclips.

  • And dashed through the downpour as raindrops softened the hairspray shell holding her elaborate coif in place.

  • The unprepared student who was always begging for an extra pencil and a couple sheets of blank paper.

fix these fragment s


Put your new knowledge to work

You are going to peer edit, but algebra.

you are going to start at the end.

BTW, This is also a SUPER way to self-edit.

Beginning at the end, evaluate every sentence:

Is there a comma splice? Use this mark: CS

Is it a fragment? Use this mark: frag.

Is it a run-on? Use this mark: R-O

put your new knowledge to work!


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