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Chapter 20 Protists. Isospora felis. Some Protist Basics. Domain: Eukarya Kindgom : Protista Cell wall composition: various Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic: Eu karyotic Examples: **Mostly Unicellular**. What’s in a name?. Derived from Greek word meaning “The Very First” – Proto .

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Chapter 20

Protists

Isosporafelis

some protist basics
Some Protist Basics
  • Domain: Eukarya
  • Kindgom: Protista
  • Cell wall composition: various
  • Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic: Eukaryotic
  • Examples:
  • **Mostly Unicellular**
what s in a name
What’s in a name?
  • Derived from Greek word meaning

“The Very First” – Proto

characteristics
Characteristics:
  • Eukaryotic
  • Mostly unicellular - may be Colonial (Spirogyra and Volvox)
  • Plant-like, Animal-like, or Fungus-like characteristics
where did they come from
Where did they come from?
  • Lynn Margulis’ Endosymbiont Hypothesis – Present day protists evolved from the symbiotic relationship of prokaryotes that lived together until eventually, they had to remain together.
where did they come from1
Where did they come from?
  • Used organelle evidence:
    • Mitochondria and chloroplasts are actually Eubacteria & blue-green bacteria (now Archaeabacteria).
    • Flagella were spirochetes
    • Further proof provide by the algae, Cyanophora paradoxa when their chloroplasts were removed, they were actually blue-green bacteria which were able to reproduce & multiply
animal like protists
Animal-like Protists
  • Protozoans – First animals
  • Classification is based on method of mobility
protozoan structures
Protozoan Structures
  • Contractile vacuole– Regulates water pressure
  • Trichocysts – defense mechanisms
  • Macronucleus – binary fission
  • Micronucleus – Conjugation
  • Gullet – food is packaged into food vacuoles
  • Oral groove – cilia lined to sweep food into gullet
phylum ciliophora
Phylum Ciliophora
  • Ciliophora – Paramecium, Stentor, Didinium, Vorticella
  • Use cilia to move
mastigophora
Mastigophora
  • Giardia (Giardiasis) and Chilomonas
  • Have flagella for mobility
  • Many are parasitic and cause intestinal distress
apicomplexa
Apicomplexa
  • Plasmodium (Malaria) and Trypanosoma (African Sleeping sickness)
  • Nonmotile
  • Reproduce by forming spores in host cells
sarcodina
Sarcodina
  • Amoeba, Radiolarians and Formanifera
  • Move using pseudopods or false feet
  • Pseudopods are used for movement and phagocytosis of food
reproduction
Reproduction
  • Most Protozoa reproduce by binary fission & conjugation
feeding
Feeding
  • Sarcodines – Phagocytosis into a vacuole which fuses with a lysosome where digestion takes place. Undigestables exit via exocytosis
feeding1
Feeding
  • Ciliates actively hunt food and ingest them via an oral groove. Using cilia, they create a current to sweep food into oral groove, into gullet and then into a food vacuole.
plant like protists
Plant-like Protists

Classified by their main pigment

  • Euglenophyta – Euglena
    • Move using Flagella
    • Eyespot as a photoreceptor to keep organism in photic zone
    • May be auto or heterotrophic
plant like protists1
Plant-like Protists
  • Pyrrophyta – Fire algae

Dinoflagellates

  • 2 flagella
  • Luminescent – gives off light
  • Produce a neurotoxin – cause Red Tides when they bloom and Paralytic Shellfish poisoning in clams and oysters. (blooms concentrate in shell fish then into fish which we eat)
red tides
Red Tides
  • Caused by a bloom in Dinoflagellates, Karenia (Gymnodinium) breve
  • Produce neurotoxins
  • Responsible for large die-offs of marine organisms and seabirds

Karenia brevis

plant like protists2
Plant-like Protists

3. Chrysophyta – Golden brown algae

  • Diatoms
  • Silica shell
  • Diatomaceous earth as filtering and also abrasives
  • Store food as oil (buoyancy)
plant like protists3
Plant-like Protists

4. Chlorophyta—Green algae

  • Volvox and Spirogyra May have flagella or be immobile like Spirogyra
  • Main pigment is Chlorophyll a & b
fungus like protists
Fungus-like Protists
  • Slime molds – Found in nutrient rich areas like mulch, compost and thick wet lawns.
  • 2 stages in life
    • Single amoeba-like cells
    • Mold-like mass that produce spores
  • Witches’ butter