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Ultra- Deep galaxy surveys with DIORAMAS@EELT the early build -up of galaxies. Olivier Le Fèvre With the DIORAMAS team (F, IT, CH, SP). Galaxy populations at and after reionisation. What do we need ? Find the “first” galaxies: exciting ! Journal headlines !

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ultra deep galaxy surveys with dioramas@eelt the early build up of galaxies

Ultra-Deepgalaxysurveyswith DIORAMAS@EELTthe earlybuild-up of galaxies

Olivier Le Fèvre

With the DIORAMAS team

(F, IT, CH, SP)

galaxy populations at and after reionisation
Galaxy populations at and afterreionisation
  • What do we need ?
    • Find the “first” galaxies: exciting ! Journal headlines !
    • Study the population of galaxies as it quickly evolves: astrophysics !
  • Requires large surveys
    • Search for objects and then study them
    • Several time steps, types, environment: need thousands of objects
  • Surveys are more than ever the backbone of exploration
    • Statistical robustness
understanding galaxy formation and evolution requires multi step surveys
Understandinggalaxy formation and evolutionrequiresmulti-stepsurveys

A severalstepprocess

  • Search for objects: need to findobjectsbeforedoingphysics !
  • Estimate the meanproperties: N(z), luminosity, gas/stellar masses, SFRD, morphology, clustering, …. assemble representativesamples
  • Isolatewelldefinedsub-populations for detailedstudies, e.g. kinematics
  • Infer a scenario & compare to models / simulations

Deep multi-band imaging

Large multiplex MOS

IFU, AO-imaging, high-resspectra…

Instrument flow

Followed by all major surveys:CFRS, DEEP2,

VVDS/MASSIV, IMAGES, LBG/SINS, zCOSMOS…

galaxy redshift surveys what is to be expected when eelt starts
GalaxyredshiftsurveysWhatis to beexpectedwhen EELT starts ?

z<2 “all sky” coverage from EUCLID: 50 million spectroscopic redshifts

  • 2<z6 willstillbeunder-explored:
  • ~20 sq.deg
  • ~50000 zspec
  • Not enough for a comprehensivepicture
  • 6<z<10+: HST then JWST starting 2018
  • ~1 sq.deg
  • 1000 zspec?
  • Not enough for robuststatistics
  • Not enough for welldefinedcase studies
finding first light objects z 6 5
Finding first light objectsz>6.5

What are we looking for ?

  • Very faint objects AB>26.5
  • Relatively sparse: 0.1 to 1 object per arcmin² per Δz=1
  • The IGM will cut their observed flux below Ly
    • Main signatures: Ly-dropout and Ly emission
  • Need to sample from very rare bright objects to more numerous small building bricks (still rare on the plane of the sky)
  • At z>6.5 all the information is in the NIR

Careful:

  • Take predictions on number density with caution (see historical perspective)

Expect the unexpected…

Keep a large parameter space for instruments

mos s on the vlt
MOS(s) on the VLT

MOS: a fundamentalleapforward in instrumentation

All major telescopes have one or more MOS

VLT: 5-6 MOS flavors

To cover a consistent parameter (discovery) spaceweneedat least 2 of these, ideallycombining modes, on the EELT

2 imaging multi slit mos in the top 3 @vlt
2 imaging-multi-slit MOS in the top 3 @VLT
  • Demonstrates « work-horse » versatile use
    • Galactic and Extra-Galactic Science
  • VLT science output isdominated by MOS !

FORS2

VIMOS

slide8

Select the sample

    • Magnitudes, colors, NB...
  • Multi-slit Spectroscopy
    • Spectral features
    • Redshift
  • The best performances
    • High sky subtraction accuracy 0.1%

Power of imaging-MOS

  • Multi-band imaging
    • Positions, magnitudes, shapes

Main target, z=1.02

SerendipitousLyman z=4.3

led to dioramas instrument concept phase a study
led to DIORAMASinstrument concept – phase A study
  • High multiplex MOS withslits
  • Imaging mode
  • Use EELT naturalseeing or GLAO-correctedbeam
    • Instrument concept accomodatesboth
  • Widefield: 6.8x6.8 arcmin²
  • 0.37-1.6 microns

A versatile instrument

slide11

DIORAMAS design parameters

High throughput: 30% VIS, 45% NIR (with detector)

Excellent image quality: 150 mas 80% encircledenergy

Gain @1µm 10-25 compared to JWST-NIRSPEC: x5 multiplex, x2.5-5 FOV, at equivalent depth/unit time

wide field multi mode
Wide field, multi-mode

Multi-slitR~300

High multiplex 480 slits

giJ

Imaging

VIS

VIS

NIR

NIR

>30,000 sources in 7’x7’ to rAB=29.8

JWST-NIRSPEC

JWST-NIRCAM

12

wide field multi mode1
Wide field, multi-mode

Multi-slitR~3000

High multiplex: 160 slits

giJ

Imaging

VIS

VIS

NIR

NIR

>30,000 sources in 7’x7’ to rAB=29.8

JWST-NIRSPEC

JWST-NIRCAM

13

mos spectroscopy at the eelt extragalactic science
MOS spectroscopy at the EELT“extragalactic” science

Need 2 MOS flavors

A powerfulcombinationfor high-z: Imaging-MOS and multi-IFU+AO

3D

IFU-MOS

Imaging-MOS

DIORAMAS