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Living Psychology by Karen Huffman with Gary Piggrem. PowerPoint  Lecture Notes Presentation Chapter 15: Living Psychology in a Global Economy Judith Phillips, Palomar College. Lecture Overview. Communication Leadership Persuasion Conflict

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LivingPsychologybyKaren Huffman with Gary Piggrem

PowerPoint  Lecture Notes Presentation

Chapter 15: Living Psychology in a Global Economy

Judith Phillips, Palomar College

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2005 Huffman: Living Psychology


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Lecture Overview

  • Communication

  • Leadership

  • Persuasion

  • Conflict

  • Living Psychology- Improving Communication and Coping With Conflict

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2005 Huffman: Living Psychology


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Communication: Module 15.1

  • Communication: interdependent process of sending, receiving and understanding messages;

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2005 Huffman: Living Psychology


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The Communication process

  • 7 important elements exist in all forms of communication:

  • The sender (who initiates the message) and the receiver (for whom the message is targeted);

  • The message,

  • Encoding- what the sender does;

  • Decoding- what the receiver does;

  • Channels- the means by which the message is communicated;

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2005 Huffman: Living Psychology


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Channels of information flow in 3 different directions:

  • Noise- stimuli that interfere,

  • Context- the environmental conditions surrounding the communication.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2005 Huffman: Living Psychology


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Non Verbal Communication:

  • the process of sending and receiving messages through means other than words;

  • Includes:

  • Kinesics (gestures and body language);

  • Proxemics (physical and personal space);

  • Paralanguage (how words are spoken);

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2005 Huffman: Living Psychology


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Male/Female differences in communication

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2005 Huffman: Living Psychology


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Leadership: Module 15.2

  • Leadership: using interpersonal influence to inspire or persuade others to support the goals and perform the tasks desired by the leader.

  • 3 major leadership styles: trait, situational, functional;

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2005 Huffman: Living Psychology


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  • Trait perspective- leadership results from specific inherited personality traits;

  • These trait include-

  • Drive, honesty and integrity;

  • Expertise and leadership motivation;

  • Flexibility (single most important trait);

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2005 Huffman: Living Psychology


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  • Charismatic leaders possess a compelling vision that transforms followers’ beliefs, values & goals;

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2005 Huffman: Living Psychology


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  • Situational perspective: the environment (both time in history and needs of followers) produces the leader;

  • 3 major styles found:

  • Autocratic leader- makes all major decisions, assigns task to followers and demands full obedience;

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2005 Huffman: Living Psychology


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  • Democratic leader- encourages group discussion and group decision making;

  • Laissez-faire leader- minimally involved with decision making & encourages workers to make their own decisions and manage themselves;

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2005 Huffman: Living Psychology


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  • Functional perspective- emphasizes the behaviors that leaders exhibit which contribute to the group’s functioning;

  • 2 types:

  • Task-oriented leader- helps a group complete a task or reach a goal;

  • Relationship-oriented leader- helps maintain group morale, satisfaction and motivation;

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2005 Huffman: Living Psychology


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Leadership and Bases of Power

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2005 Huffman: Living Psychology


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Persuasion: Module 15.3

  • Persuasion: communication intended to change attitudes;

  • 4 major elements of persuasion-

  • Who- the source in communication;

  • What- the communication message;

  • To Whom- the audience;

  • How- the channels and methods;

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2005 Huffman: Living Psychology


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Several important elements of how:

  • repeated exposure

  • classical conditioning

  • foot in the door technique

  • the door in the face- beginning with a very large request followed by a smaller request;

  • low balling- getting someone to commit to an attractive proposal before revealing hidden costs;

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2005 Huffman: Living Psychology


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  • bait & switch: offering an attractive proposal, then making it unavailable or unappealing and offering a more expensive alternative;

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2005 Huffman: Living Psychology


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Routes to persuasion

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2005 Huffman: Living Psychology


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Conflict: Module 15.4

  • Conflict: having to choose between 2 or more competing goals;

  • Can be:

  • dysfunctional (destructive) or functional (constructive);

  • intrapersonal or interpersonal;

  • 2 major types of interpersonal conflict are substantive (deals with goals or means) or emotional (between individuals);

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2005 Huffman: Living Psychology


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Sources of conflict

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2005 Huffman: Living Psychology


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Living Psychology- Improving Communication and Coping With Conflict: Module 15.5

  • Improving communication skills by overcoming 6 barriers that block communication:

  • Physical distractions such as music and sounds;

  • Perceptual set- readiness to perceive, based on expectations;

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2005 Huffman: Living Psychology


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  • Semantics Conflict: - poor choice of words, use of emotionally charged words, and inappropriate use of technical jargon;

  • Mixed messages;

  • Status differences between communicating individuals;

  • Communication overload;

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2005 Huffman: Living Psychology


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©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2005 Huffman: Living Psychology


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Conflict Resolution Skills Conflict:

  • 5 main approaches:

  • Avoidance- pretending a conflict doesn’t exist;

  • Accommodation- focusing on areas of agreement;

  • Compromising,

  • Authoritative command- an outside authority imposes a solution;

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2005 Huffman: Living Psychology


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  • Collaboration Conflict: - all parties problem solve and put their own interests behind them;

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2005 Huffman: Living Psychology


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