kimon to perikles to thucydides n.
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Kimon to Perikles to Thucydides. Thuc . 1.98-103. Cimon, son of Miltiades hero of Marathon, wages war with the Persians in southern Asia Minor ( Eurymedon River) and defeats the Persian fleet (468-466) Cimon besieges, enslaves the inhabitants of, and takes

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thuc 1 98 103
Thuc. 1.98-103
  • Cimon, son of Miltiades hero of Marathon, wages war with the Persians in southern Asia Minor (Eurymedon River) and defeats the Persian fleet (468-466)
  • Cimon besieges, enslaves the inhabitants of, and takes
    • Eion on the Strymon River (in Thrace), for silver and timber
    • Carystus (on the nearby island of Euboea) for the grain route
    • Islands of Naxos & Thasos, which revolted from the Delian League (470/69 &465/4)
    • Thasos, which revolted from the Delian League (465/4) over silver
  • Earthquake strikes Sparta, helots revolt (462/1); Cimon offers help & is rebuffed for “revolutionary leanings”
  • Pericles’ career begins
479 465 securing the league the grain route access to resources
479-465: Securing the League, the grain route, & access to resources

Strymon River

Timber, silver and gold



social issues 140k total population ca 478 7 bce 315k total population ca 432 1 bce
Social issues:140K total population ca. 478/7 BCE315K total population ca. 432/1 BCE
  • Marginalized populations: 87%
    • 130K women and children in citizen families
    • 115K male, female, children slaves (~ 1/3 of the total population)
    • 30Kmetics + small number of barbaroi
  • Privileged populations: 13%
    • 40K male citizens: name, patronymic, demotic (e.g., Themistokles son of Neokles of Phrearrhioi)
    • Participation in δημοκρατία (demokratia)
      • Election and selection of officials by the entire demos
      • Drafting of laws by representatives, voting on laws by the entire demos
    • Priestly castes
    • Education for sons of aristocrats but not state-sponsored

Kleisthenes’ reforms, 508/7 BCE:3 regions, each = 10 trittyes(thirds): coast, city, inland

10 tribes (phylai)

~ 140 villages (demes)

Demes contribute citizens selected by lot annually based on population to serve in the Athenian Boule (Council) of 500: representative democracy

Demes manage local affairs: proof of citizenship

Tribes contribute citizens proportionately from the trittyes to serve in the military

Each tribe elects 1 general (strategos) annually

Citizenry selects citizens by lot for lesser offices

Citizens vote on all matters in assembly (ekklesia)


Golden Age of Athens, 462/1-432/1 (Thuc. 1.104-118)

465/4 charged Kimon over Thasos revolt

462/1 reformed Areopagus (Ephialtes assassinated)

contributed to Kimon’sostracism over Spartan fiasco

461-55 jury pay, office sortition, expansion of eligibility for selected magistracies, subsidized festivals

460-50 support of Egyptian revolt from Persia

First Peloponnesian War: Athens breaks with Sparta

459 started construction of Long Walls

454 moved Delian League treasury to Athens

451 restricted citizenship; Kimon recalled from exile (dies in Cyprus); truce with Sparta

Perikles son of Xanthipposthe Athenian


Golden Age of Athens, 462/1-432/1 (Thuc. 1.104-118)

449 Peace of Kallias(?) – peace with Persia

448/7 Congress Decree (but no one comes)

446 30-years’ peace with Sparta

447-32 Construction of Parthenon, Propylaea, Odeon

446 Suppressed revolts in Megara & on Euboea

444/3 Thucydides son of Melesias ostracized

440/39 Suppressed revolt on Samos

433 Tensions arise with Sparta and her allies

432/1 (Second) Peloponnesian War erupts

Perikles son of Xanthipposthe Athenian






Panathenaic Way


Athena Promachos,456-50(?)

Parthenon, 447-32

Altar of Athena


Odeon of Perikles

Propylaia, 437-32

Athena Nike, 427-24


 Agora

parthenon b asics
Parthenon: basics
  • 447-432 BCE
  • Architects: Kallikrates & Iktinus
  • Pentelicmarble (Mt. Pentelikon, Attica)
  • Craftsmen: citizens, metics, slaves
  • Sculptural program: Pheidias
    • Pediments celebrating Athena vs. Poseidon, birth of Athena
    • Metopes celebrating conquest over barbarians (Amazons, Giants, Centaurs, Trojans)
    • Frieze celebrating Panathenaia
    • Statue of Athena Parthenos
parthenon frieze cavalcade
Parthenon frieze: cavalcade

Metopes celebrating victory over barbarians

Pediment celebrating birth of Athena

chryselephantine statue of athena parthenos
Chryselephantine statueof Athena Parthenos

Varvakeion Athena(Roman, 2nd c. CE)

Nashville Parthenon

sicily phoenician greek and native settlements
SicilyPhoenician,Greek and native settlements
  • Sicilian age of tyrants
  • 485- Gelon of Gela, acquires Syracuse,
    • 480Himera, allies with Acragas
  • tyrants as aristocrats (games, poetry, temple-building)
  • 478 Hieron succeeds Gelon, adds Naxos, Catana, Leontini
  • 461 Overthrow of the last tyrants
  • Sicilian after tyrants
    • Syracuse a leading democracy
  • 460- Sporadic revolt by Sicels (Ducetius)
  • 440
  • 432 Syracuse: most powerful polis
  • Athens and the west
  • 443 Colony of Thurii (Italian instep) (loses colony ca. 434 to Sparta?)
  • Alliances with Rhegion (Italy),
  • Leontini, Egesta
432 1 war
432/1: War!
  • What were the origins of the Peloponnesian war?
    • “The Athenians and Peloponnesians began it after breaking the Thirty Years’ Treaty which they had made after the capture of Euboea. As to why they broke the treaty …” (Thuc. 1.23.4; see Rhodes p. 81)
    • Peloponnesian grievances (esp. Corinth) regarding Corcyra, Potidaea, Aegina, Megara
    • Spartan demands for Athens to restore the Greeks’ freedom
    • Athenian refusal to back down
  • Whose fault was it?






1: Athens/Corcyra defensive alliance & battle of Sybota (433)

2: Potidaea revolts from Delian league & battle with Corinth (432)

3: Aegina demands autonomy promised by Athens & “cleansing” of Aegina (432-1)

4: Megara demands access to Athenian agora & league harbors (432/1)