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How orderly was decolonisation? C aim – to learn the ‘success stories’ and begin to analyse why the outcome was different B/A aim – to analyse why some countries experienced more orderly decolonisation. Interview with Nigerian Yoruba.

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How orderly was decolonisation? C aim – to learn the ‘success stories’ and begin to analyse why the outcome was differentB/A aim – to analyse why some countries experienced more orderly decolonisation

  • Interview with Nigerian Yoruba.
  • What does this suggest to you about the decolonisation of Nigeria and Ghana?
  • What impact would these new immigrants have?
  • How orderly was decolonisation in Ghana?

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gYKFFoJrdC8&safe=active

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How orderly was decolonisation? C aim – to learn the ‘success stories’ and begin to analyse why the outcome was differentB/A aim – to analyse why some countries experienced more orderly decolonisation

  • Read your timelines and prepare the answers to the questions ready to feedback in an interesting way to the rest of the class in 10 minutes time.
    • E.g. It could be a sketch, interview, etc.
    • Be respectful!
ghana
Ghana

Even though Ghana had military coups – why is it seen as more of a success story of decolonisation?

What problems did it still have?

1925 - First legislative council elections take place.

1957 March - Ghana becomes independent with Kwame Nkrumah as prime minister.

1960 - Ghana proclaimed a republic; Nkrumah elected president.

1964 - Ghana becomes a one-party state.

1966 - Nkrumah overthrown in military coup; Russian and Chinese technicians expelled.

1969 - New constitution facilitates transfer of power to civilian government led by Kofi Busia.

1972 - Busia ousted in military coup led by Colonel Ignatius Acheampong.

1978 - Acheampong forced to resign; General Frederick Akuffo takes over.

1979 - Akuffo deposed in coup led by Flight Lieutenant Jerry Rawlings. Acheampong and Akuffo executed.

1979 September - Rawlings hands over power to an elected president, HillaLimann.

1981 - Limann ousted in military coup led by Rawlings after two years of weak government and economic stagnation.

1983 - Rawlings adopts conservative economic policies, abolishing subsidies and price controls, privatising many state enterprises and devaluing the currency.

kenya
Kenya

Why is Kenya seen as a success story after decolonisation in the 1960s and 1970s?

What problems did it still have?

1944 - Kenyan African Union (KAU) formed to campaign for African independence. First African appointment to legislative council.

1947 - Jomo Kenyatta becomes KAU leader.

1952 - Secret Kikuyu guerrilla group known as Mau Mau begins violent campaign against white settlers. State of emergency declared. Kenyatta arrested.

1953 - Kenyatta charged with management of Mau Mau and jailed. KAU banned.

1956 - Mau Mau rebellion put down after thousands killed - mainly Africans.

1959 - Kenyatta released from jail but under house arrest.

1960 - State of emergency ends. Britain announces plans to prepare Kenya for majority African rule. Kenya African national Union (Kanu) formed by Tom Mboya and OgingaOdinga.

1961 – Independence. Kenyatta freed and assumes presidency of Kanu.

1963 - Kenya gains independence, with Kenyatta as prime minister.

1964 - Republic of Kenya formed. Kenyatta becomes president and Odinga vice-president.

1966 - Odinga, a Luo, leaves Kanu after ideological split, forms rival Kenya People's Union (KPU).

1969 - Assassination of government minister Tom Mboya sparks ethnic unrest. KPU banned and Odinga arrested. Kanu only party to contest elections.

1974 - Kenyatta re-elected.

egypt
Egypt

Why is Egypt seen as a success story after decolonisation in the 1960s and 1970s?

Remember it decolonised in 1922 but Britain retained influence until 1957.

What problems did it still have?

1956 July - Nasser nationalises the Suez Canal to fund the Aswan High Dam.

1956 October - Tripartite Invasion of Egypt by Britain, France and Israel due to the nationalisation of the Suez Canal. A ceasefire is declared in November.

1958 February - Egypt and Syria join to form the United Arab Republic (UAR) in the first step of their aim for Arab unity.

1961 - Syria withdraws from the union with Egypt but Egypt remains known as the UAR.

1967 May – Six day war. Egypt, Jordan sign defence pact. Israel says it increases danger of war with Arab states.

1967 June - Six-Day War in which Israel defeats forces of Egypt, Jordan and Syria. Israel takes control of Sinai, the Golan Heights, the Gaza Strip, East Jerusalem and the West Bank.

1970 September - Nasser dies and is replaced by his Vice-President, Anwar al-Sadat.

1971 - Treaty of Friendship between Egypt and the Soviet Union is signed.

1981: Egypt's President Sadat assassinated

1971 - Egypt's new constitution is introduced and the country is renamed the Arab Republic of Egypt.

1971 - The Aswan High Dam is completed. It proves to have a huge impact on irrigation, agriculture and industry in Egypt.

why were these cases of decolonisation more orderly
Why were these cases of decolonisation more orderly?

Colonial Legacy?

Actions of Black Africans?

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14 How accurate is it to say that the transition to independence led to increased political instability in east and west Africa in the 1960s and 1970s?

What could our next paragraph be... Think of the sentence starters from yesterday.

economic problems and structural adjustment plans saps
Economic problems and Structural Adjustment Plans (SAPs)
  • These are policies the IMF and World Bank put into place when giving loans to developing countries.
  • They are made to ensure borrowing is reduced and it is spent in the right way
  • It wants the economy in these countries to become more market oriented – it privatises companies, removes trade barriers, deregulates industries.
  • It is often argued these countries have no choice
  • For example in the 1980s Ghana applied for a loan after uncontrolled spending from authoritarian rulers. It was in huge debt and had no choice but to accept the SAP from the World Bank. They are now even further into debt and spend four times more on their debt than they do on health care.

What are the main problems with SAPs?

What are the benefits?

Do you think they should be enforced?