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The Industrial Revolution

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  1. The Industrial Revolution

  2. French Economic Disadvantages • Years of war • Supported the AmericanRevolution. • French Revolution. • Early 19c  Napoleonic Wars • Heavy debts. • High unemployment  soldiersreturning from the battlefronts. • French businessmen were afraid to take risks.

  3. Why Did Industrialization Begin in England First?

  4. Industrial England: "Workshop of the World" That Nation of Shopkeepers! -- Napoleon Bonaparte

  5. The Enclosure Movement

  6. “Enclosed” Lands Today

  7. Metals, Woolens, & Canals

  8. Early Canals Britain’s Earliest Transportation Infrastructure

  9. Mine & Forge [1840-1880] • More powerful than water is coal. • More powerful than wood is iron. • Innovations make steel feasible.

  10. Coalfields & Industrial Areas

  11. Coal Mining in Britain:1800-1914

  12. Young Coal Miners

  13. Child Labor in the Mines Child “hurriers”

  14. British Pig Iron Production

  15. Richard Arkwright:“Pioneer of the Factory System” The “Water Frame”

  16. Factory Production • Concentrates production in oneplace [materials, labor]. • Located near sources of power [rather than labor or markets]. • Requires a lot of capital investment[factory, machines, etc.] morethan skilled labor. • Only 10% of English industry in 1850.

  17. Textile FactoryWorkers in England

  18. The Factory System • Rigid schedule. • 12-14 hour day. • Dangerous conditions. • Mind-numbing monotony.

  19. Textile FactoryWorkers in England

  20. Young “Bobbin-Doffers”

  21. New Inventions of the Industrial Revolution

  22. Jacquard’s Loom

  23. John Kay’s “Flying Shuttle”

  24. The Power Loom

  25. James Watt’s Steam Engine

  26. Steam Tractor

  27. Steam Ship

  28. An Early Steam Locomotive

  29. Later Locomotives

  30. The Impact of the Railroad

  31. “The Great Land Serpent”

  32. Crystal Palace Exhibition: 1851 Exhibitions of the new industrial utopia.

  33. Crystal Palace: Interior Exhibits

  34. Crystal Palace:British Ingenuity on Display

  35. Crystal Palace:American Pavilion

  36. The "Haves": Bourgeois Life Thrived on the Luxuries of the Industrial Revolution

  37. 19c Bourgeoisie: The Industrial Nouveau Riche

  38. Criticism of the New Bourgeoisie

  39. Stereotype of the Factory Owner

  40. “Upstairs”/“Downstairs” Life

  41. The "Have-Nots": The Poor, The Over-Worked, & the Destitute

  42. Factory Wages in Lancashire, 1830

  43. Industrial Staffordshire

  44. Problems of Polution The Silent Highwayman - 1858

  45. The New Industrial City

  46. Early-19c Londonby Gustave Dore

  47. Worker Housing in Manchester

  48. Factory Workers at Home

  49. Protests / Reformers

  50. The Luddites: 1811-1816 Attacks on the “frames” [power looms]. Ned Ludd [a mythical figure supposed to live in Sherwood Forest]