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The Industrial Revolution. French Economic Disadvantages. Years of war Supported the American Revolution. French Revolution. Early 19c  Napoleonic Wars Heavy debts. High unemployment  soldiers returning from the battlefronts. French businessmen were afraid to take risks. Why Did

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The industrial revolution




The industrial revolution

French Economic Disadvantages

  • Years of war

    • Supported the AmericanRevolution.

    • French Revolution.

    • Early 19c  Napoleonic Wars

  • Heavy debts.

  • High unemployment  soldiersreturning from the battlefronts.

  • French businessmen were afraid to take risks.

The industrial revolution

Why Did


Begin in

England First?

The industrial revolution

Industrial England:


of the World"

That Nation of Shopkeepers! -- Napoleon Bonaparte

The industrial revolution

Early Canals

Britain’s Earliest Transportation Infrastructure

The industrial revolution

Mine & Forge [1840-1880]

  • More powerful than water is coal.

  • More powerful than wood is iron.

  • Innovations make steel feasible.

The industrial revolution

Child Labor in the Mines

Child “hurriers”

The industrial revolution

Richard Arkwright:“Pioneer of the Factory System”

The “Water Frame”

The industrial revolution

Factory Production

  • Concentrates production in oneplace [materials, labor].

  • Located near sources of power [rather than labor or markets].

  • Requires a lot of capital investment[factory, machines, etc.] morethan skilled labor.

  • Only 10% of English industry in 1850.

The industrial revolution

Textile FactoryWorkers in England

The industrial revolution

The Factory System

  • Rigid schedule.

  • 12-14 hour day.

  • Dangerous conditions.

  • Mind-numbing monotony.

The industrial revolution

Textile FactoryWorkers in England

The industrial revolution

New Inventions

of the

Industrial Revolution

The industrial revolution

Crystal Palace Exhibition: 1851

Exhibitions of the new industrial utopia.

The industrial revolution

Crystal Palace:British Ingenuity on Display

The industrial revolution

Crystal Palace:American Pavilion

The industrial revolution

The "Haves":

Bourgeois Life

Thrived on the

Luxuries of the

Industrial Revolution

The industrial revolution

19c Bourgeoisie: The Industrial Nouveau Riche

The industrial revolution

The "Have-Nots":

The Poor,

The Over-Worked,

& the Destitute

The industrial revolution

Factory Wages in Lancashire, 1830

The industrial revolution

Problems of Polution

The Silent Highwayman - 1858

The industrial revolution

Early-19c Londonby Gustave Dore

The industrial revolution

The Luddites: 1811-1816

Attacks on the “frames” [power looms].

Ned Ludd [a mythical figure supposed to live in Sherwood Forest]

The industrial revolution

Peterloo Massacre, 1819

BritishSoldiers Fire on BritishWorkers:Let us die like men, and not be sold like slaves!

The industrial revolution

The “Peoples’ Charter”

  • Drafted in 1838 by William Lovett.

  • Radical campaign for Parliamentary reform of the inequalities created by the Reform Bill of 1832.

  • Votes for all men.

  • Equal electoral districts.

  • Abolition of the requirement that Members of Parliament [MPs] be property owners.

  • Payment for Members of Parliament.

  • Annual general elections.

  • The secret ballot.

The industrial revolution

The Chartists

A female Chartist

A physical force—Chartists arming for the fight.

The industrial revolution

New Ways



The industrial revolution

Thomas Malthus

  • Population growth willoutpace the food supply.

  • War, disease, or faminecould control population.

  • The poor should have less children.

  • Food supply will then keep up with population.

The industrial revolution

The Utilitarians:Jeremy Bentham & John Stuart Mill

  • The goal of society is the greatest good for the greatest number.

  • There is a role to play for government intervention to provide some social safetynet.

The industrial revolution

The Socialists:Utopians & Marxists

  • People as a society would operate and own themeans of production, not individuals.

  • Their goal was a society that benefited everyone, not just a rich, well-connected few.

  • Tried to build perfect communities [utopias].

The industrial revolution

Br. Govt. Response

to the Dislocation

Created by


The industrial revolution

Government Response

  • Abolition of slavery in the coloniesin 1832 [to raise wages in Britain].

  • Sadler Commissionto look intoworking conditions

    • Factory Act[1833] – child labor.

  • New Poor Law [1834] – indoor relief.

    • Poor houses.

  • Reform Bill[1832] – broadens thevote for the cities.

The industrial revolution

The Results of


at the end of the 19c

The industrial revolution

By 1850: Zones of Industrializationon the European Continent

  • Northeast France.

  • Belgium.

  • The Netherlands.

  • Western German states.

  • Northern Italy

  • East Germany  Saxony

The industrial revolution

Bibliographic Sources

  • “Images of the Industrial Revolution.”Mt. Holyoke College.

  • “The Peel Web: A Web of English History.”