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Home Food Preservation 101. Prepared: June 2009. MODULE 1 Introduction to Home Canning. MODULE 1: Units. Why are we canning in the 21 st century Canning Trends Specific Concerns with Canning Foods at Home Credible Instructions. Why are We Canning in the 21 st Century.

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Home Food Preservation 101

Prepared: June 2009


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MODULE 1Introduction to Home Canning

Home Food Preservation -- Module 1


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MODULE 1: Units

  • Why are we canning in the 21st century

  • Canning Trends

  • Specific Concerns with Canning Foods at Home

  • Credible Instructions

Home Food Preservation -- Module 1


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Why are We Canning in the 21st Century

Home Food Preservation -- Module 1


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Canning History Lesson

  • Canning dates to late 18th century in France.

  • Napoleon Bonaparte, concerned about keeping his armies fed, offered cash for developing a reliable method of food preservation.

  • Nicholas Appert won the prize, 12,000 francs, in 1809 when he submitted his method of “food in glass bottles (Kovel and Kovel, 2007).

Home Food Preservation -- Module 1


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Canning History

  • Appert used glass jars sealed with wax and reinforced with wire.

  • Took 14 years to develop.

  • Peter Durand, replaced the breakable glass bottles with cylindrical tinplate canisters.

Home Food Preservation -- Module 1


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Basics haven’t changed drastically

  • The basic principles have not changed dramatically.

  • Heat sufficient to destroy microorganisms.

  • Foods packed into sealed, or "airtight" containers.

  • The canned foods are then heated under steam pressure at temperatures of 240-250°F (116-121°C).

Home Food Preservation -- Module 1


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The Basics

  • Louis Pasteur provided the explanation for canning when he was able to demonstrate that the growth of microorganisms is the cause of food spoilage (Lund et al. Eds. 2000).

Home Food Preservation -- Module 1


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Commercially Canned Foods

  • Historically:

    • Relatively safe

    • Only 4 outbreaks in 40 years, last one was in 1974

    • Before….

Home Food Preservation -- Module 1



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Recent Illnesses

  • September 2008

    • Botulism

    • Ohio man and his grandson were hospitalized as a result of botulism toxin poisoning caused by improperly canned green beans.

  • 2007

    • Virginia couple died after eating improperly canned foods that also contained botulism toxin.

    • Physician

Home Food Preservation -- Module 1


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Recent Illnesses

  • February 2009

    • Woman in her 30s and two children under 10 fell ill from eating improperly-canned green beans from a home garden.

    • The woman is reportedly recovering slowly and remains on a ventilator.

Home Food Preservation -- Module 1


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Canning Trends

Home Food Preservation -- Module 1


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Home Food Preservation

  • Home canning continues to be a popular means of preserving food at home (Andress et al, 2002).

  • Fruits and vegetables make up the majority of home preserved foods.

  • Meats (especially game) and fish are also preserved.

Home Food Preservation -- Module 1


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National Phone Survey of Canners (2005)

  • 58% of home canners are between 35-64 years of age

  • 27% are 65 and over

  • 15% are under 35 (D’sa et al., 2007)

Home Food Preservation -- Module 1


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Home Canning Survey

  • Majority of home canners have reported not following science-based home preservation methods.

  • Receive much of their home preservation information through friends and family.

  • Only 45% of respondents thought that home canned foods could be spoiled without obvious signs of spoilage.

Home Food Preservation -- Module 1


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Home Food Preservation

  • Local

  • Economy

    • Personal

    • Business opportunity

  • Connection to food

Home Food Preservation -- Module 1


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July 22, 2008New York Times

Home Food Preservation -- Module 1



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Spot the Mistake – Celebrity Chefs

Home Food Preservation -- Module 1


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Eat Local: Movement Stresses Safety

"Buying locally is much safer than just eating food that has been purchased en masse from god knows where."

Home Food Preservation -- Module 1


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Organic = “Healthy”?!

"I eat organic food and drink only green tea– gallons of it when I’m writing. I smoke cigarettes, but organic ones”

Organic Style magazine March 2005

Home Food Preservation -- Module 1


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Food Preservation Trends

  • Tuscaloosa Farmers Market

  • Allows selling home-made jams and jellies, but NOT certain canned goods due to fear of botulism.

  • Prohibited are low-acid foods, such as green beans.

Home Food Preservation -- Module 1


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Home Canned Foods as a Business

  • Home canned soup, sold to a PA woman in 2007.

  • Woman tested positive for botulism, as did the soup.

Home Food Preservation -- Module 1


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Recent headlines

  • Let us grow our own food to eat better, save money (W-S Journal, April 4, 2009)

  • More Alaskans trying to keep food source local (Fairbanks Daily News-Miner, April 5, 2009)

  • Locals jump on national gardening trend (Northwest Arkansas times, April 5, 2009)

Home Food Preservation -- Module 1


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Growing, Preparing, Storing Own Food

  • Seed sales up 10-15%.

  • Families with gardens expected to increase 40+% in 2009.

  • "As the economy goes down, food gardening goes up," says Bruce Butterfield, the group's research director. "We haven't seen this kind of spike in 30 years."

Home Food Preservation -- Module 1


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Younger Demographic

May not have even seen home canning before

Home Food Preservation -- Module 1


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Specific Concerns with Canning at Home

Home Food Preservation -- Module 1


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Storing Jars

  • Canned foods can be stored for up to 18 months to retain optimal quality.

  • Store canned foods in a cool, dry environment that is between 50 and 70oF.

  • Non-pathogenic thermophilic bacteria can grow if the jars are not stored properly.

Home Food Preservation -- Module 1


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Unsafe Canning Methods

  • Open kettle

  • Oven canning

  • Dishwasher

  • Addition of aspirin

  • Steam canners

  • Microwave oven canners

Home Food Preservation -- Module 1


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Credible Instructions

Home Food Preservation -- Module 1


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Canning Books

  • So Easy to Preserve, University of Georgia

  • Ball Blue Book, Alltrista

  • How to Dry Foods, Deanna DeLong

  • The Joy of Winemaking, Terry Garey

  • Canning & Preserving without Sugar, Norma MacRae

Home Food Preservation -- Module 1


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Canning Websites

  • National Center for Home Food Preservation www.uga.edu/nchp

  • Food Safety Website www.foodsafetysite.com/consumers/resources/

  • Alltrista Consumer Products www.homecanning.com/usa OR 1-800-240-3340

Home Food Preservation -- Module 1


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MODULE 2Home Canning

Home Food Preservation -- Module 1


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MODULE 2: Units

  • Principles of Canning

  • Two Methods of Canning

  • Packing Methods

  • Canning Equipment

  • Processing Time

  • Boiling Water Processing

  • Pressure Canning Processing

Home Food Preservation -- Module 2


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Principles of Canning

Home Food Preservation -- Module 2


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Canning Basics

  • Food is placed in a canning jar and heated to a temperature that destroys targeted microorganisms.

  • Heat also inactivates enzymes that cause spoilage.

  • Air is driven from the jar during heating. As the jar cools a vacuum seal is formed.

Home Food Preservation -- Module 2


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Commercial Sterility

  • All pathogens, spoilage bacteria, molds, and yeast are “killed.”

  • Those that survive are thermophilic bacteria that cause spoilage but not illness.

    • Some produce gases.

    • Some produce bad odors.

Home Food Preservation -- Module 2


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Vacuum Seal

  • Holds the lid on the jar.

  • Prevents recontamination of the food.

  • Prevents air from drying out the food.

Home Food Preservation -- Module 2


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Two Methods of Canning

Home Food Preservation -- Module 2


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Two Methods of Canning

Boiling Water Canning

  • Used for high-acid foods

    Pressure Canning

  • Used for low-acid foods.

  • Can also be used for high-acid foods but might result in a soft texture.

Home Food Preservation -- Module 2


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High-Acid Foods (pH < 4.6)

  • All fruits, except for:

    • figs

    • tomatoes, and

    • melons

  • Rhubarb

  • Fermented pickles, such as sauerkraut

  • Acidified foods, such as pickles and tomatoes

Home Food Preservation -- Module 2


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Low-acid Foods (pH > 4.6)

  • All vegetables, except for rhubarb

  • Meats

  • Poultry

  • Seafood

  • Soups

  • Mixed canned foods (low-acid + high-acid)

Home Food Preservation -- Module 2


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Why Two Methods of Canning?

  • Yeast, molds, and most bacteria are killed at boiling temperatures -- 212ºF at sea level.

  • C. botulinum forms spores that require higher temperatures for destruction in a reasonable period of time -- usually 240ºF or above at sea level.

Home Food Preservation -- Module 2


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Clostridium botulinum

  • Clostridium botulinum bacteria are found naturally in soil and water.

  • Seven known types, but only A, B, E and F cause illness in humans.

  • This bacterium can produce heat-resistant spores.

Home Food Preservation -- Module 2


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C. botulinum -- Growth

To germinate, the spores need the following conditions:

  • anaerobic environment

  • low-acid food

  • temperature between 40ºF and120ºF

  • relatively high moisture

Home Food Preservation -- Module 2


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C. botulinum -- Growth

Optimal conditions might be found in:

  • Home canned foods

  • Smoked fish and sausage

  • Foil-wrapped baked potatoes sitting at room temperature

  • Packaged mushrooms

  • Pot pies and other foods in gravy

Home Food Preservation -- Module 2


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Botulinum Toxin

  • The botulinum toxin, one of the deadliest known, causes botulism.

  • 1 mg can kill 655 tons of mice.

  • Food can contain toxin without showing any signs.

  • Antitoxin available, but slow recovery. Permanent nerve damage possible.

Home Food Preservation -- Module 2


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Botulism -- Symptoms

Symptoms usually appear within 12 to 72 h after eating contaminated food:

  • Digestive upset (in some cases)

  • Blurred, double vision

  • Difficulty swallowing, speaking, and breathing

  • Possible death from suffocation

  • 10-35% mortality rate

Home Food Preservation -- Module 2


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Preventing Botulism

  • Spores do not grow in high-acid foods.

  • Spores killed when low-acid foods heated long enough at a specific temperature.

  • Process low-acid foods in a pressure canner, which can reach a temperature of 240ºF.

Home Food Preservation -- Module 2


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Preventing Botulism

  • Prepare and process food according to instructions in a tested recipe.

  • Canner gauge must be accurate and properly used.

  • Use only high quality raw ingredients.

  • If toxin is suspected, detoxify food before discarding. The toxin is destroyed by boiling even though the spores are not.

Home Food Preservation -- Module 2


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Improperly Canned Foods

  • Never consumer improperly canned foods.

  • Throw out – do not feed to animals.

  • Boiling will not always adequately destroy toxin.

  • When cleaning up surfaces contaminated by unsafe canned foods, prepare a 1:5 bleach to water solution.

Home Food Preservation -- Module 2


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Packing Methods

Home Food Preservation -- Module 2


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Raw Pack

  • For foods that lose shape when cooked.

  • Place raw food directly in jars. Pour boiling hot liquid over the food.

  • Pack firmly, do not crush.

  • Add jars carefully to warm canner to prevent jar breakage from heat shock.

  • Preheat water to 140oF before putting raw-packed foods into boiling water bath.

Home Food Preservation -- Module 2


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Hot Pack

  • Preferred method for most foods.

  • Food is cooked in liquid before packing. Cooking liquid is then poured over food in jar.

  • Less floating of food pieces in the jar.

  • Better food color and flavor.

  • Easier to pack, foods more pliable

  • Heat in preparing kills some microorganisms.

  • Preheat water to 180oF before putting into boiling water bath.

Home Food Preservation -- Module 2


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Canning Equipment

Home Food Preservation -- Module 2


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Pressure Canners

  • Flat rack in bottom

  • Pressure regulator or indicator:

    • Dial or weighted gauge

    • Older models have petcocks

  • Ventpipe for pressurizing

  • Safety valves or overpressure plugs

  • Safety locks when pressurized

  • Rubber gaskets in lid (metal to metal seal)

Home Food Preservation -- Module 2


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Replacement Parts

  • Dial gauges, when inaccurate

  • Gaskets (sealing rings)

    • Every 2 years usually

  • Rubber overpressure plugs

    • Every 2 years

  • Vent pipes if clogged

  • Air vent/cover lock from lid

  • Weighted gauges or dead weight if lost

Home Food Preservation -- Module 2


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Processing Time

Home Food Preservation -- Module 2


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Processing Schedules

Definition:

  • Length of time at a specific temperature that a food must be processed.

    Affected by:

  • pH value of the food

  • Composition of the food

    - Viscosity

    - Tightness of pack

    - Convection vs. conduction transfer of heat

    - Starches, fats, bones

Home Food Preservation -- Module 2


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Processing Schedules

Affected by:

  • Preparation style of food

  • Initial temperature of food as it is filled into jar

  • Temperature of processing

  • Size of jar

  • Shape of jar

Home Food Preservation -- Module 2


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Significance of Heat Penetration

  • Processing time is affected by whether food heats by convection, conduction, or a combination of both.

  • Heat penetration studies used to scientifically determine safe processing times.

  • The “cold spot” in the food must reach the correct temperature for the correct length of time to destroy target pathogens.

Home Food Preservation -- Module 2


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Heat Penetration

Follow recipe exactly.

  • The following slows heat penetration:

    • Extra sugar or fat

    • Oversized food pieces

    • Added thickeners

      Use recommended canners.

  • Heat-up and cool-down times in pressure canners are counted toward sterilizing value of the process. Do not rush them.

Home Food Preservation -- Module 2


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Processing Time

  • Each food and preparation style has its own processing time so always use a tested recipe.

  • Time differs with size of jar.

  • Too little = underprocessing  spoiled or unsafe food

  • Too much = overprocessing  overcooked

Home Food Preservation -- Module 2


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Pressure Increases Temperature

  • Heat food to 240oF to destroy botulinum spores. Cannot achieve this in boiling water.

  • The only safe way to can low-acid foods is with pressure.

  • Temperature of 240ºF or above needed for reasonable processing times

    • 10 psig = 240ºF at sea level

    • 15 psig = 250ºF at sea level

Home Food Preservation -- Module 2


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Altitude Adjustments

  • All canning instructions based on processing at sea level – 0 to 1,000 feet.

  • As altitude increases, temperature decreases at a given pressure so increase pressure for pressure canning and increase time for boiling water bath canning.

Home Food Preservation -- Module 2


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Altitude Adjustments

  • Process low-acid food in a dial gauge:

    • 0-2000 feet = 11 pounds pressure

    • 2001-4000 feet = 12 pounds pressure

    • 4001-6000 feet = 13 pounds pressure

    • 6001-8000 feet = 14 pounds pressure

Home Food Preservation -- Module 2


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Altitude Adjustments

Process low-acid food in a weighted gauge:

  • 0-1000 feet = 10 pounds pressure

  • At altitudes above 1000 feet, process at 15 pounds pressure.

    Boiling water bath processing:

  • Increase time to process because water boils at a lower temperature.

Home Food Preservation -- Module 2


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Boiling Water Processing

Home Food Preservation -- Module 2


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Boiling Water Bath

  • Have water simmering (180oF) in canner, high enough to cover jars when filled (about six inches for most loads).

    • Hot packed jars = simmering water

    • Raw packed jars = warm to hot water

  • Place jars on rack in canner.

  • Add more hot water if necessary, once jars are in canner. (Never pour hot water directly onto raw-packed jars).

Home Food Preservation -- Module 2


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Boiling Water Bath

  • Start counting processing time after water returns to a full boil.

  • Adjust processing time for altitudes over 1,000 feet.

Home Food Preservation -- Module 2


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Boiling Water Bath

  • If processing foods for more than 30 minutes, water should be two inches over jars when process begins.

  • If water stops boiling at any time during process, bring the water to a boil and begin the process over.

Home Food Preservation -- Module 2


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Pressure Canning Processing

Home Food Preservation -- Module 2


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Pressure Processing

  • Have 2 to 3 inches of water simmering or hot in canner.

    • Hot packed jars = simmering water

    • Raw packed jars = warm to hot water

  • Place jars on rack in canner.

  • Put lid on canner with weight off or petcock open.

Home Food Preservation -- Module 2


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Pressure Processing

  • Exhaust canner for 10 minutes.

  • Close vent or petcock.

  • Start counting processing times when correct pressure is reached.

  • Adjust pressure for altitude, if needed.

  • Turn off heat at end of processing.

  • Let pressure drop to 0 psig naturally.

Home Food Preservation -- Module 2


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Pressure Processing

  • Wait two minutes after pressure drops to 0 psig. (For some canners, check that locks in handles are released.)

  • Remove weight or petcock.

  • Open canner. Watch steam!

  • Remove jars to padded surface or rack.

  • Cool jars 2 to 24 hours, undisturbed.

  • Check that the jars have sealed.

Home Food Preservation -- Module 2


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MODULE 3Canning High-Acid Foods

Home Food Preservation -- Module 3


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MODULE 3: Units

  • Definition of a High-Acid Food

  • Preparing Foods for Canning

  • Acidifying Tomatoes

  • Canning High-Acid Foods

Home Food Preservation -- Module 3


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Definition of a High-Acid Food

Home Food Preservation -- Module 3


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High-Acid Foods (pH < 4.6)

  • All fruits, except for:

    • figs

    • tomatoes, and

    • melons

  • Rhubarb

  • Fermented pickles, such as sauerkraut

  • Acidified foods, such as pickles and tomatoes

Home Food Preservation -- Module 3


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Preparing Foods for Canning

Home Food Preservation -- Module 3


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Selecting Fruits and Tomatoes for Canning

  • Choose firm, ripe products.

  • Do not use overripe fruits.

  • Gather or purchase only what you are able to can within 2 to 3 hours.

Home Food Preservation -- Module 3


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Washing Fruits and Tomatoes for Canning

  • Dirt contains many microorganisms hardest to kill.

  • Wash everything, even foods to be peeled.

  • Use several water changes.

  • Lift the food, do not soak.

Home Food Preservation -- Module 3


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Preventing Fruit Darkening

  • 1 teaspoon (3000 mg) ascorbic acid added to one gallon of water

  • Commercial ascorbic acid mixture

  • Heating the fruit

Home Food Preservation -- Module 3


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Preventing Fruit Darkening

The following do not work as well:

  • Citric acid solution

  • Lemon juice

  • Sugar syrup

  • Salt/vinegar solution

Home Food Preservation -- Module 3


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Canning Liquids for Fruits

Sweet syrup, water or juice can be used.

Sweet syrup:

  • Helps retain shape, color, and flavor of fruit. Not needed for safety

  • Mix sugar with water or juice, heat to dissolve sugar.

  • Proportions of sugar to liquid given in publications.

  • Up to 1/2 the sugar can be replaced by corn syrup or mild flavored honey. (Use more corn syrup if bland.)

Home Food Preservation -- Module 3


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Canning Liquids for Fruits

Juice Packs:

  • Commercial unsweetened apple, pineapple, or white grape juice.

  • Juice can also be extracted from fruit being canned or from the above fresh fruits.

  • Extracting juice:

    • Thoroughly crush ripe, sound fruit. Heat to simmering. Strain.

Home Food Preservation -- Module 3


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Canning Liquids for Fruits

Artificial Sweeteners:

  • Add just before serving

  • Saccharin-based sweeteners turn bitter

  • Aspartame-based sweeteners lose flavor

Home Food Preservation -- Module 3


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Acidifying Tomatoes

Home Food Preservation -- Module 3


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Acidifying Tomatoes

  • pH between 4.0 - 4.6 (borderline)

  • Even if pressure processing, tomatoes must be acidified.

  • For Pints:

    • 1 tablespoon bottled lemon juice or 1/4 teaspoon citric acid

  • For Quarts:

    • 2 tablespoon bottled lemon juice or 1/2 teaspoon. citric acid

Home Food Preservation -- Module 3


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Acidifying Tomatoes

  • Add directly to jar before filling.

  • If too acid tasting, add sugar.

  • Use 4 tablespoons vinegar per quart or 2 tablespoons per pint. However, flavor might be off.

Home Food Preservation -- Module 3


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Salt

  • Salt is only used for flavor in canned tomatoes and vegetables.

  • It can be omitted because does improve the safety of the final product.

Home Food Preservation -- Module 3


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Canning High-Acid Foods

Home Food Preservation -- Module 3


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Canning High-Acid Foods

  • Heat canner with about six inches of water to simmering.

  • Treat new lids.

  • Wash jars.

  • Select and wash high quality raw product.

Home Food Preservation -- Module 3


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Canning High-Acid Foods

  • Fill jars either hot pack or cold pack:

    • hot pack (food and liquid heated before filling)

    • cold pack (raw food put in jar and boiling liquid poured over it)

  • Leave appropriate headspace.

  • Remove air bubbles.

Home Food Preservation -- Module 3


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Canning High-Acid Foods

  • Wipe rim of jars.

  • Adjust lids.

  • Lower jars slowly into canner.

  • Count processing time when the water returns to a boil.

  • Remove jars to a padded surface.

  • Cool away from drafts, 12 to 24 hours.

Home Food Preservation -- Module 3


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Canning High-Acid Foods

  • Check seals.

  • Remove screw bands.

  • Label.

  • Store.

Home Food Preservation -- Module 3


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Headspace

  • Space in the jar between the inside of the lid and the top of the food or its liquid.

  • Check canning directions for that correct headspace for each food.

  • Usually:

    • 1/4” for jellied fruit products

    • 1/2” for high-acid foods, such as fruits, tomatoes, and pickles

    • 1” to 1-1/4” for low-acid foods

Home Food Preservation -- Module 3


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Headspace

Too little:

  • Food may bubble out during processing.

  • Deposit on rim may prevent proper sealing.

    Too much:

  • Food at the top is likely to discolor.

  • Jar may not seal properly, because processing time not long enough to drive all the air from inside the jar.

Home Food Preservation -- Module 3


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Closing the Jars

  • Remove air bubbles.

  • Re-adjust headspace if necessary.

  • Wipe jar rims.

  • Adjust two-piece lids, fingertip-tight.

Home Food Preservation -- Module 3


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MODULE 4Canning Low-Acid Foods

Home Food Preservation -- Module 4


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MODULE 4: Units

  • Definition of Low-Acid Food

  • Principles of Pressure Canning

  • Pressure Canners

  • Troubleshooting

  • Storing Canner

Home Food Preservation -- Module 4


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Definition of a Low-Acid Food

Home Food Preservation -- Module 4


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Low-Acid Foods (pH >4.6)

  • All vegetables, except for rhubarb

  • Meats

  • Poultry

  • Seafood

  • Soups

  • Mixed canned foods (low-acid + high-acid)

Home Food Preservation -- Module 4


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Principles of Pressure Canning

Home Food Preservation -- Module 4


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Pressure Canning

  • Food is placed in a canning jar and heated to a temperature that destroys targeted microorganisms.

  • Heat also inactivates enzymes that cause spoilage.

  • Air is driven from the jar during heating. As the jar cools a vacuum seal is formed.

Home Food Preservation -- Module 4


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Pressure Canning

  • C. botulinum can grow in anaerobic environments, such as canned foods.

  • Forms spores that require higher temperatures for destruction in a reasonable period of time -- usually 240ºF or above at sea level.

  • 240oF can only be achieved under pressure (10.5 pounds at sea level)

Home Food Preservation -- Module 4


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Pressure Canning

  • Follow the directions exactly as outlined in a credible source. Changing the instructions could result in an unsafe product.

  • No mashed foods can be safely processed.

  • All foods must be peeled except for tomatoes.

  • Apples must also be cored because the can core can contain hydrogen cyanide.

Home Food Preservation -- Module 4


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Soups

  • Soups can be safely prepared.

  • When filling the jar, fill the jar one-half full of solids.

  • Fill the remainder with liquid.

Home Food Preservation -- Module 4


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Pressure Canners

Home Food Preservation -- Module 4


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Two Types of Pressure Canners

  • Pressure canner is:

    • Specially made heavy pot that has a lid that can be closed tightly to prevent steam from escaping.

  • Two types of pressure canners:

    • Dial-gauge canner (operate at 11 pounds pressure)

    • Weighted gauge canner (operate at 10 pounds pressure)

Home Food Preservation -- Module 4


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Pressure Canners

  • Dial Gauge (11 pounds pressure)

    • Dial indicates pressure inside body of canner

    • Must be checked for accuracy each year.

    • More flexibility in altitude adjustments - small psig adjustments

    • Has dead or counter-weight to close open vent for pressuring

      • Not to be used for indicating pressure

    • Pressure is increased or decreased by adjusting burner heat.

Home Food Preservation -- Module 4


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Pressure Canners

Weighted Gauge (10 pounds pressure)

  • Regulates pressure inside the canner.

  • Open vent is the same one that pressure regulator fits.

  • Will continue to allow some air to be released from canner during process.

  • Cannot be tested for accuracy.

  • Altitude adjustment requires increase of 5 psig pressure.

Home Food Preservation -- Module 4


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Pressure Canners

Weighted Gauge

  • One piece

    • Fitting for 5, 10, or 15 psig

    • Do not use dead- or counter-weight from dial gauge canner or pressure cooker

    • Mirro: jiggles 2 to 3 times per minute

  • Three piece

    • Number of pieces used determines 5, 10, or 15 psig

    • Presto: rocks gently throughout entire process

Home Food Preservation -- Module 4


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Pressure Canner -- First Use

  • Some parts may need assembling; see manufacturer’s directions.

  • Become familiar with parts and their functions.

  • Clean to remove manufacturing oils.

  • Lightly coat the exposed gasket and lugs on the canner bottom with cooking oil.

  • Before each use, clear and open vent pipes.

Home Food Preservation -- Module 4


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Venting the Canner

  • Also called “exhausting” the canner

  • As the water boils in the canner, the “empty” space becomes a mixture of steam and air.

  • The temperature of a steam/air mixture is lower than the temperature of pure steam.

  • Venting exhausts air so processing takes place in a pure steam environment

    • processing times for a pure steam environment

Home Food Preservation -- Module 4


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Venting the Canner

  • Some manufacturers of weighted gauge canners say venting is not necessary.

  • USDA recommends venting all pressure canners

  • Without proper venting, up to 30% of the sterilizing value of a 20-minute process may be lost.

Home Food Preservation -- Module 4


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Venting the Canner

  • Steam must flow freely from the open ventport in the lid for 10 minutes prior to pressurizing.

    • After putting filled jars in the pressure canner, fasten the lid in place.

    • Leave the ventport open.

      • Pipe where weighted gauge or deadweight will go

    • Turn the heat on high.

Home Food Preservation -- Module 4


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Venting the Canner

  • When water boils, steam will begin coming out of open vent.

  • Wait until there is constant, strong funnel of steam, then start timing 10 minutes.

  • At the end of the 10 minutes, place weight in place to start pressurizing the canner.

Home Food Preservation -- Module 4


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Pressure Canner Processing

Home Food Preservation -- Module 4


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Pressure Canner Processing

  • Use 1-inch headspace in jars.

    • A few products use 1-1/4 inches

  • Simmer 2 to 3 inches of water in canner.

    • Hot packed jars = simmering water

    • Raw packed jars = warm to hot water

  • Place jars on rack in canner.

  • Put lid on canner with weight off or petcock open.

Home Food Preservation -- Module 4


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Pressure Canning

  • Exhaust canner 10 minutes.

  • Close vent or petcock.

  • Start counting processing time when correct pressure is reached.

  • Adjust pressure for altitude, if needed.

  • Turn off heat at end of processing.

  • Let pressure drop to 0 psig naturally.

Home Food Preservation -- Module 4


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Opening the Canner

  • Turn off heat at end of process

  • Let jars cool in canner until pressure has dropped to 0 – depressurized.

  • Wait ten minutes after depressurized.

  • Tilt canner before opening so steam is pushed away from your face. The steam, water, and jars in the canner will still be very hot, even bubbling or boiling.

  • How to open varies depending on the type of pressure canner being used.

Home Food Preservation -- Module 4


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Opening a Dial-gauge Canner

Dial Gauge

  • Watch needle on dial.

  • After it reads 0 psig, carefully remove the weight.

    • If there are piston locks in the lid or handle, see that they have also opened.

  • Wait 10 minutes, then open lid.

  • Remove jars from canner.

Home Food Preservation -- Module 4


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Opening the Canner

Weighted Gauge

  • Time the cooling process.

    • Heavy-walled older canners -- 30 minutes for pints; 45 minutes full of quarts

    • Thinner wall, newer canners -- 20 to 30 minutes

  • If piston locks in the lid/handle, open.

  • Remove the gauge.

  • Wait 10 minutes, then open lid.

  • Remove jars from canner.

  • Home Food Preservation -- Module 4


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    Troubleshooting

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 4


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    Testing Dial Gauges

    • Accuracy of gauge essential to safety of the canned food.

    • Two ways:

      • Maximum thermometer

      • Comparing to master dial gauge, such as Presto

    • 1 pound error in a 20-minute process causes over 10% decrease in sterilizing value.

      • 2 pound error a 30% decrease

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 4


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    Loss of Pressure

    • Drop in pressure during processing means the sterilizing value of the process will be decreased

    • Foodborne illness and/or spoilage could result

    • If pressure drops below target any time during the processing time, bring the canner back to pressure and start timing the process over from the beginning.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 4


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    Fluctuating Pressure

    • Large and/or quick variations in pressure during processing may cause loss of liquid from jars.

    • If the variation is a drop in pressure after process has begun, the process must be re-started.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 4


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    Force Cooling Canners

    Done by:

    • cooling the canner with running cold water

    • opening the vent port before canner air cools to 0 psig

    • covering with wet towels

    • putting in cold air drafts

      Might result in:

    • Food spoilage

    • Unsafe food due to underprocessing

    • Loss of liquid from jars

    • Seal failures

    • Warping of canner lid

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 4


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    Storing Canner

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 4


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    Storing Canner

    • Wash and thoroughly dry canner, lid, and gasket. Do not put lid in water.

    • Older canners -- remove removable petcocks or safety valves. Wash and dry. Reassemble.

    • Clean openings by running clean pipe cleaner or thing strips of cloth through them.

    • Store canner with crumpled clean paper or paper towels in it; do not fasten cover

    • Wrap cover in paper and turn upside down on the canner bottom.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 4


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    Canning Problems

    • Loss of liquid

    • Imperfect seal

    • Product dark at top of jar

    • Cloudy liquid

    • Undesirable color changes

    • Sediment in jars

    • Spoilage

    • Floating

    • Cloudy sediment in bottom of jar

    • Separate of juice

    • Poor flavor

    So Easy to Preserve – pp. 111-115

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 4


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    MODULE 5 Pickling

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 5


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    MODULE 5: Units

    • Types of Pickles

    • Making Non-fermented Brined Pickles

    • Making Fermented

    • Making Fresh Pack Pickles

    • Other Ingredients

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 5


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    Types of Pickles

    Brined Pickles

    • Fermented

    • Non-fermented -- cured in brine several weeks.

      Fresh Pack or Quick Process Pickles

    • Combined with hot vinegar and spices

      Fruit Pickles

    • Whole or sliced fruits simmered in spicy, sweet-sour syrup

      Relishes

    • Chopped fruits and vegetables cooked with seasonings and vinegar

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 5


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    Brined vs. Fermented Pickles

    • Brined

      • Cured in a brine (salt and water) for one or more weeks.

      • Curing changes color, flavor, and texture.

      • If not fermented, acid (vinegar) added later.

    • Fermented

      • Lactic acid produced during fermentation preserves product.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 5


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    Curing vs. Fermenting

    • Curing:

      • Decreases the water activity

    • Fermenting:

      • Increases the pH

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 5


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    Non-fermented Brined Pickles

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 5


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    Non-Fermentation Brining

    • Quick and easy.

    • Acid is added in the form of vinegar to prevent botulinum growth.

    • May be brined a short time, to draw water from cucumbers. This allows cucumbers to absorb more pickling solution.

    • To preserve vegetables for later use in pickling or other recipes.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 5


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    Non-Fermentation Brining

    • Fermentation is prevented by using:

      • correct combination of salt and vinegar

      • a very high salt brine

    • Desalt before use.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 5


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    Desalting or Freshening

    • Soak in equal parts of vinegar and water

      OR

    • Simmer in several changes of water and then soak for 12 to 14 hours.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 5


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    Non-Fermentation Brining

    • These are only half-pickled:

      • Something else has to be done, such as adding vinegar

    • Often used with vegetables that do not ferment well because of their low sugar content (carrots, cauliflower, celery, corn, peas, and snap beans).

    • Imparts a brined taste.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 5


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    Non-Fermentation Brining

    • Steps basically same as fermentation, but must be desalted and prepared for eating or pickling at end.

    • Salt-Vinegar Brining:

      • cucumbers, onions, peppers, carrots, cauliflower, celery, corn, peas, snap beans

      • 4-1/2 cups salt, 1 pint vinegar, and 1 gallon water

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 5


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    Non-Fermentation Brining

    • High-Salt Brining

      • cucumbers, carrots, cauliflower, green tomatoes, onions, peppers, and snap beans

      • 1-1/2 to 2-1/2 cups salt and 1 gallon water depending on vegetable.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 5


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    Fermented Pickles

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 5


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    Changes during Fermentation

    Carbohydrates

    • sugar  acid

      Color

    • bright green  olive or yellow green

      Tissue

    • chalky-white  translucent

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 5


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    Ingredients

    Produce

    • Use fresh, tender vegetables and firm fruit.

    • Use recommended pickling varieties.

    • Use unwaxed cucumbers.

    • Store produce in refrigerator or cool, well-ventilated place if not used immediately.

    • Wash produce in cold water and remove 1/16 inch slice from blossom ends from cucumbers.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 5


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    Salt in Fermentation

    • Used to selectively control microorganisms.

    • Allows lactic acid bacteria to multiply and produce lactic acid.

    • Use pure granulated “pickling” salt.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 5


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    Salt in Fermentation

    • Do not use table salt.

      • Non-caking ingredients may cause cloudiness and interfere with fermentation

      • Iodine may cause pickles to be dark

    • Do not use rock salt.

      • Not food grade

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 5


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    Sauerkraut

    • Shred five pounds of cabbage at a time.

    • Add three tablespoons of salt/five pounds.

    • Pack in container so rim is four to five inches above cabbage.

    • If juice not cover cabbage, add boiled and cooled brine (1-1/2 T salt/quart water).

    • Weight down cabbage.

    • Store at 70 to 75oF for 3 to 4 weeks.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 5


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    Fresh Pack Pickles

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 5


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    Fresh Pack Pickles

    • Covered with boiling hot pickling liquid (vinegar, spices, and seasonings)

    • Sometimes brined for several hours, drained, and then covered with pickling liquid.

    • Must be processed in a boiling water bath.

    • Better flavor if stand for several weeks.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 5


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    Vinegar

    • Use cider or white vinegar or 5% acidity (50 grain)

    • Grain = 10x’s number of grams of acetic acid/100 ml vinegar

      • 40 grain = 4 grams/100 ml

    • Difficult to know activity in homemade vinegar

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 5


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    Vinegar

    • Cider vinegar -- good flavor and aroma

    • White distilled vinegar -- for light colored fruits and vegetables for clear color.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 5


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    Flavored Vinegar

    • Only use glass containers.

    • If use screw caps, wash in hot soapy water, rinse, and scald in boiling water.

    • Allow 3 to 4 sprigs per pint (2 cups) vinegar

    • Use very fresh herbs for best flavor. If use dried use 3 tablespoons only.

    • Keep for up to three months in cool storage.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 5


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    Other Ingredients

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 5


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    Sugar

    • Use white granulated or brown (for color).

    • Use honey, corn syrup and saccharin only if specified in recipe (can cause off-flavors).

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 5


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    Spices

    • Use fresh for best flavor.

    • Use whole spices tied in spice bag (ground spices can cause cloudiness).

    • If you must use substitute, use:

      • 1/2 as much dry

      • 1/8 as much ground

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 5


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    Firming Agents

    • Lime -- calcium hydroxide

    • Alum -- aluminum sulfate, aluminum potassium sulfate

      • Makes pickles crisp

      • Not need if good quality ingredients and up-to-date methods are used

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 5


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    Water

    Use soft water for brining

    • Hard water may interfere with formation of acid and prevent pickles from curing properly.

      Soft water:

    • Boil water for 15 minutes.

    • Remove from heat, cover. Let stand for 24 hours.

    • Remove scum from top.

    • Slowly pour off water so sediment is not disturbed.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 5


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    Water

    • Iron - discoloration

    • Calcium - shriveling

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 5


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    Lime

    • Use only lime that is food grade.

    • Food grade lime may be purchased in grocery stores as pickling lime.

    • Do not use agricultural, burnt or quick lime

      • not calcium hydroxide

      • not food grade

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 5


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    Lime

    • Lime binds with pectin substances to form insoluble calcium salts

    • Problem: if not properly used, can raise pH of final product so that it is no longer safe.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 5


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    To Use Lime Properly

    • Soak cucumbers in lime water solution from 12 to 24 hours.

    • Follow strict rinsing procedure.

    • Excessive lime must be removed to make safe pickles.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 5


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    Removing Excess Lime

    • Drain lime-water solution.

    • Rinse cucumbers.

    • Soak in fresh water for 1 hour.

    • Repeat rinsing and fresh water soaking step 2 more times.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 5


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    Alum

    • Can be used in fermented pickles, but is not necessary.

    • Can cause digestive disturbances if too much is used or it remains in the cucumbers.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 5


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    Utensils for Brining

    • Stainless steel - expensive

    • Crock or stone jar

    • Unchipped enamel-lined pan

    • Large food-grad plastic jars

    • Large glass jars

    • Weight to hold vegetables in brine (heavy plate or plastic bag filled with brine)

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 5


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    For Heating

    • Use utensils of unchipped enamelware, stainless steel, aluminum or glass.

    • Do not use copper, brass, galvanized or iron utensils.

      • Reaction with acids or salts that causes color changes or formations of undesirable compounds

    • Use wooden or stainless steel spoons.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 5


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    Steps in Fresh Pack Pickling

    • Soak in ice water, boiling water or simmer in water or pickling liquid.

    • Drain.

    • Pack in jars.

    • Cover with hot pickling liquid.

    • Process.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 5


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    Processing

    • Destroys organisms that cause spoilage and inactivates enzymes that can affect color, flavor, and texture.

    • If no time is given, process for 10 minutes.

    • To help prevent softening in cucumber pickles:

      • Pack room temperature product

      • Cover with 165ºF to 180ºF liquid.

      • Process at 180ºF for 20 minutes.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 5


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    Remedies for Pickling Problems

    • Soft or slippery pickles

    • Strong, bitter taste

    • Hollow pickles

    • Shriveled pickles

    • Scum on the brine surfaces when curing cucumbers.

    So Easy to Preserve – pp. 184-185

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 5


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    MODULE 6 Jellied Products

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 6


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    MODULE 6: Units

    • Types of jellied products

    • Principles of Jelly Making

    • Jelly-making Equipment

    • Preparing Fruit to Make Jelly

    • Making Jelly with No Added Pectin

    • Making Pectin Added Jelly

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 6


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    MODULE 6: Units

    • Making Jelly without Added Sugar

    • Making uncooked Jams and Jellies

    • Making Microwave Jellies

    • Filling and Processing Jars

    • Storing Jellied Products

    • Using Other Sweeteners to Make Jellied Products

    • Jellied Product Problems

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 6


    Types of jellied products l.jpg

    Types of Jellied Products

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 6


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    Jellied Products

    Jelly -- firm gel from juice

    Jam -- sweet spread - crushed fruit

    Preserve -- whole fruit pieces - uniform size

    Conserve -- nuts - 2 or more fruits, raisins, coconut

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 6


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    Jellied Products

    Marmalade -- Citrus added

    Fruit Butter -- Spread - fruit pulp

    Fruit Honey -- Consistency of honey - from juice

    Fruit Syrup -- Sweet thickened juice

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 6


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    Classifications of Jellied Products

    No pectin added

    • Also called long-boil

    • Requires “full” sugar

      Pectin added

    • With full sugar

    • With reduced sugar

    • With no sugar

    • Uncooked = freezer jams

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 6


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    Principles of Jelly Making

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 6


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    Gel Formation

    Fruit

    Sugar - Pectin - Acid

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 6


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    Ingredients

    All four needed to form gel.

    Fruit

    • Flavor

    • Some or all pectin

    • 1/4 slightly under-ripe to 3/4 ripe

    • Only ripe fruits are canned and frozen

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 6


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    Ingredients

    Sugar

    • Cane or beet sucrose

      • No dextrose

    • Preservative effect

    • Flavor (sweetness)

    • Too much sugar for amount of pectin: weak gel

    • Too little: tough

    • Best concentration of solids is 65%

    • Can use corn syrup or honey but…...

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 6


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    Ingredients

    Pectin

    • Occurs naturally in fruit (heat activates).

    • Concentrated in skins and cores.

    • Amount varies with fruit and maturity.

    • O.5 to 1.0% pectin produces good gel.

    • Powdered and liquid pectins are not interchangeable.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 6


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    Ingredients

    • Overcooking destroys.

    • Commercial pectin is made from apples or citrus.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 6


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    Ingredients

    Acid

    • pH of 3.2 gives good gel, if ratio of pectin and sugar is also just right.

    • Higher in under-ripe and tart fruits.

    • Flavor (tartness).

    • Helps control crystals during storage.

    • Added with commercial pectin — lemon juice, vinegar, citric acid, lactic acid, tartaric acid.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 6


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    Acid Test

    • Mix together and taste:

      • 1 teaspoon lemon juice

      • 3 tablespoons water

      • 1/2 teaspoon sugar

    • Taste your fruit juice.

    • Should be equal in tartness.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 6


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    Pectin and Gel Formation

    • Optimum Pectin Concentration = 1.0%

    • Optimum Sugar Concentration = 67.5%

    • Optimum pH Value = 3.2

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 6


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    Pectin Molecule

    • Threadlike carbohydrate molecule made up of galacturonic acid

      • derivative of galactose

    • Negatively charged ions along the molecule repel each other, keeping molecules apart in natural state.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 6


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    Forming a Gel

    • Molecules must crossbond.

    • When acid is added/present:

      • H+ ions attach to O- ions.

      • Molecules crossbond because no more negatively charged ions to repel each other.

      • Water is tied up among the bound pectin molecules.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 6


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    Forming a Gel

    • When sugar is added:

      • Acts as a dehydrating agent

      • Attracts (binds) additional water so less is available to pectin

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 6


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    Tests for Pectin Content

    Cooking Test

    • 1/3 cup juice + 1/4 cup sugar

    • Heat, stir, dissolve sugar

    • Boil rapidly until it sheets from spoon

    • Pour in bowl or jelly glass and cool

    • If cooled mixture is jelly-like, it will gel

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 6


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    Tests for Pectin Content

    Alcohol Test

    • 1 teaspoon juice

    • 1 T rubbing alcohol

    • Gently stir or shake in closed container

    • Solid jelly-like mass forms if enough pectin to gel

      • Can pick up with fork

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 6


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    Tests for Pectin Content

    Jelmeter (for making cooked jelly)

    • Calibrating glass tube

      • Capillary

    • Measures distance juice flows in tube in 1 minute

    • Calibration indicates if pectin must be added, or if too much pectin must be diluted with water

    • If enough pectin for a gel, tube also indicates how much sugar to add per cup of juice

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 6


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    Jelly-Making Equipment

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 6


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    Equipment

    • Measuring equipment

    • Bowl for sugar

    • Heavy, metal saucepan -- large enough for boiling mix

    • Metal spoons

    • Ladle

    • Jar funnel

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 6


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    Equipment

    • Jars and lids

    • Boiling water canner with rack

    • Jar lifter

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 6


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    Other Possible Equipment

    • Scales

    • Sieve, food mill, fruit press

    • Jelly bag

    • Thermometer -- jelly or candy

    • Jelmeter

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 6


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    Preparing Fruit to Make Jelly

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 6


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    Preparing the Fruit

    • Approximately 1 pound prepared (washed, trimmed, cut) fruit = 1 cup juice.

    • Use fruit immediately.

      • Do not refrigerate longer than one day.

    • Discard over-ripe or rotten fruit.

    • Use 1/4 underripe fruit and 3/4 just-ripe fruit, if no pectin is used.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 6


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    Preparing the Fruit

    • Wash fruit, lifting out of water. Do not soak.

    • Remove stems and blossoms.

    • Do not remove skins, core, or pits (high pectin concentration).

    • Cut as recipe indicates.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 6


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    Extracting the Juice

    • Place prepared fruit and cold water in saucepan (soft berries can be crushed and no water added).

    • Bring to boil on high heat.

    • Reduce heat.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 6


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    Extracting the Juice

    • Cook until fruit is soft.

      • Grapes, berries:

        • 10 minutes

      • Apples, hard fruits:

        • 20-25 minutes

      • Do not overcook

        • Destroys pectin, color, and flavor

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 6


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    • Strain through damp jelly bag

      • Can use fruit press before straining

      • Cover jelly bag and bowl while dripping to prevent contamination

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 6


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    With or Without?

    Without Added Pectin:

    • Long boiling time with fruit and sugar

    • Less added sugar

    • Loss of flavor from long boiling

      With Added Pectin:

    • Greater yield from measure of fruit

    • Fresher fruit flavor, but some flavor may be masked

    • Better color

    • Less chance of failure

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 6


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    Commercial Pectin

    Regular

    • Available in liquid and powder forms

    • Higher yield per measure of juice

    • Use fully ripe fruit

    • Use more sugar, so fruit flavor may be masked

    • Do not have to cook fruit to extract juice

    • Do not need to test for pectin or acid

    • Shorter cooking time

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 6


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    Commercial Pectins

    No doneness tests

    • Time cooking carefully

    • Uniform results, quality

      Store finished gel in cool, dry place

    • Use within 1 year

      Powdered and liquid pectin are not interchangeable in recipes

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 6


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    Making Jelly with No Added Pectin

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 6


    Jelly with no added pectin l.jpg
    Jelly With No Added Pectin

    • Bring extracted juice to boil (6 cups max)

    • Add sugar immediately; stir until dissolved

      • Gives time for inversion of sugar by acids in the fruit, and less danger of crystallization

      • If no recipe or jelmeter is available, try 3/4 cup sugar per 1 cup juice

    • Inversion

      • Splitting sucrose into fructose and glucose

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 6


    Jelly with no added l.jpg
    Jelly With No Added

    • These sugars have a different shape than sucrose and thus do not fit the “slots” available when the sucrose molecules begin to align to form crystals.

  • Cook rapidly

    • Long cooking destroys pectin

  • Test for doneness

  • Home Food Preservation -- Module 6


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    Test for Doneness

    • Temperature

      • Cook to 220ºF or 8ºF above boiling point of water

      • Test the thermometer with boiling water prior to cooking jelly

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 6


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    Test for Doneness

    • Sheet Test

      • Dip cold metal spoon in to boiling jelly

      • Hold spoon out of steam

      • Drops should “sheet” together

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 6


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    Test for Doneness

    • Refrigerator/Freezer Test

      • Place small amount on plate

      • Place in freezer for a few minutes

      • Check for gel

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 6


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    Making Jelly with Added Pectin

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 6


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    Pectin Added Jelly

    • Can use liquid or powdered pectin.

    • Follow package instructions.

      • Pectins differ when sugar and pectin are added

    • Cooking is timed; no doneness tests are used.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 6


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    Making Jelly without Added Sugar

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 6


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    Jellied Products without Added Sugar

    • Thickened or gelled by:

      • Special pectins

        • Low methoxyl (calcium bonds)

      • Vegetable gums

      • Gelatin

      • Long boiling to concentrate product

    • They lack the structural, preservative and flavor effects of sugar.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 6


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    Jellied Products without Added Sugar

    • Artificial sweeteners can not be interchanged for sugar in recipes

      • Must use special recipe

      • Read labels carefully - some lose sweetening power after heating or storage

      • Sucralose new possibility

    • Follow processing and storage directions on box or in recipe

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 6


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    Jellied Products without Added Sugar

    • Modified Pectins - Sure-Jell Light

      • Uses 1/3 less sugar

      • Must use sugar

    • Low-Methoxyl Pectin

      • Metal ions required

        • Ca++ or Mg++

      • Some hard to dissolve

      • May can or freeze

      • Inconsistent results with early ones; newer better.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 6


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    Jellied Products without Added Sugar

    • May use sugar substitutes or sugar to sweeten

  • Vegetable Gums - Slim Set

    • Thickened, not pectin gel

    • May use sugar, honey, or sugar substitute

    • Cannot always freeze or heat process

  • Home Food Preservation -- Module 6


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    Making Uncooked Jams and Jellies

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 6


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    Uncooked Jams and Jellies

    • Must use:

      • Fresh or frozen fruits or juices

        • Canned do not give good product

      • Commercial pectin

        • No heat to activate naturally present pectins

      • More sugar

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 6


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    Uncooked Jams and Jellies (cont’d.)

    • Storage

      • Must be stored in refrigerator (up to 3 weeks) or freezer (up to 1 year)

      • Do not store at room temperature - will mold and ferment

      • Freezer storage best for color and flavor retention

      • Do not place in freezer until gel forms (24 h)

      • Use within a few days after opening (will start weeping)

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 6


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    Making Microwave Jellies

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 6


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    Microwave Jellies

    • Do not always save time.

    • Use recipe designed for microwave technique.

      • Best if developed for that specific microwave

    • Use deep bowl since product tends to “boil over” easily.

    • May need to experiment.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 6


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    Filling and Processing Jars

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 6


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    Preparing Jars

    • Best to use half-pint or pint jars.

    • Wash jars in hot, soapy water and rinse.

    • Cover jars with water, bring to a boil and boil 10 minutes.

      • The boiling water canner works well for this.

    • Keep the jars in hot water (or warm) until ready to fill.

      • If altitude >1000 feet, add 1 minute of boiling time for each 1000 feet.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 6


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    Preparing Lids

    • Follow manufacturer’s directions -- they vary.

    • Some: cover with water, bring to boil and let stand at least 1 to 3 minutes.

    • Others: cover with water, bring to simmer only, keep warm until ready to use.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 6


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    Filling Jars

    • Skim foam quickly).

    • Pour boiling product into hot, sterilized half-pint jars.

    • Leave headspace of 1/4 inches.

    • Wipe rim.

    • Close with lid and screw band.

    • Process — to prevent mold growth.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 6


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    Processing Jars

    • Place jars on rack in canner filled with boiling water.

      • Water should cover jars by 1 to 2 inches.

    • Cover canner.

    • Return to boil; boil for 5 minutes.

      • 10 minutes if jars are not presterilized

    • Remove jars to protected surface.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 6


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    Processing Jars

    • Cool away from drafts for at least 12 hours.

    • Do not disturb or move for at least 12 hours of gel may break.

    • NOTE: USDA does not recommend inverting jars or paraffin seals.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 6


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    Storing Jellied Products

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 6


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    Storage

    • To avoid breaking gel, don’t move for 12 hours.

    • Check seal.

    • Remove screw bands.

    • Wash off jar and lid if needed.

    • Label.

    • Store in cool, dry, dark place.

    • Short storage time is best.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 6


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    Using Other Sweeteners

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 6


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    Other Sweeteners

    • Honey

      • Without Added Pectin:

        • Substitute up to 1/2 sugar

      • With Any Added Pectin:

        • Substitute up to 2 cups sugar per large batch.

        • Up to 1 cup in recipes yielding 5 to 6 cups.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 6


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    Other Sweeteners

    • Corn Syrup

      • Without Added Pectin:

        • Up to 1/4 of sugar in jelly

        • Up to 1/2 of sugar in others

      • With Added Powder Pectin:

        • Up to 1/2 sugar in any

      • With Added liquid Pectin:

        • Up to 2 cups of sugar/batch

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 6


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    Jellied Product Problems

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 6


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    Tips for Success

    • Use research-based recipes.

    • Follow boiling times exactly.

    • Measure carefully.

    • Don’t alter sugar or pectin.

    • Don’t double recipes.

    • Use large enough saucepan.

    • Cool as quickly as possible after canning process — do not force cool.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 6


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    Jelly:

    Crystals

    Bubbles

    Too Soft

    Syneresis/weeping

    Syneresis:

    From warmth or acid

    Dark Color

    Cloudiness

    Fermentation

    Mold

    Stiff or Tough

    Jellied Product Problems

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 6


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    Jellied Product Problems

    • Preserves:

      • Shriveled fruit

      • Off-flavor

      • Tough

      • Sticky, gummy

      • Dark

      • Loss of color

      • Fermentation or mold

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 6


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    Re-Making

    • Jam/jelly with liquid pectin

      • Batch sizes as above.

      • Must add sugar, lemon juice, and pectin.

    • Procedures vary with cooked and uncooked jam/jelly.

    • Remember, all cooked jam and jelly must be reprocessed for shelf storage.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 6


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    MODULE 7 Salting and Brining

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 7


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    MODULE 7: Units

    • Principles of Salting and Brining

    • Salting Methods

    • Brining Methods

    • Salt 

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 7


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    Principles of Salting and Brining

    • Addition of salt to preserve vegetables.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 7


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    Salting Methods

    • Method 1

      • Small amount of salt

      • Cabbage  sauerkraut

    • Method 2

      • Large amount of salt

      • Make product with strong salty taste

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 7


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    Brining Methods

    • Method 3

      • Weak salt brine plus vinegar

    • Method 4

      • Strong salt brine plus vinegar

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 7


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    Salt

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 7


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    Salt

    • Do not use table salt because contains an anti-caking agent.

    • Coarse salt is unsuitable – dissolves slowly and cannot be distributed as evenly.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 7


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    Salt Table

    • Relationship between the weight of the salt (pound or ounce) and the volume (cup, tablespoon, or teaspoon)

    • Salt tables available for:

      • Equivalent weights and volumes

      • Amount of salt to add to fresh vegetables

      • Amount of salt to prepare brines of different strengths

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 7


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    MODULE 8Drying Foods

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 8


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    MODULE 8: Units

    • Principles of Drying

    • Drying Methods

    • Drying Equipment

    • Drying Foods

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 8


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    History of Drying

    • One of the oldest methods of food preservation.

    • Practiced by nomadic peoples of the Middle East and Asia

    • Dried foods are light, take little space, and don’t need refrigeration.

    • Dried foods are ideal for traveling-camping, backpacking.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 8


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    Principles of Drying

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 8


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    How Drying Preserves Food

    • Drying removes moisture from food so bacteria, yeasts, and molds cannot grow and spoil the food.

    • Drying also slows the action of enzymes, but does not kill them.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 8


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    Drying Methods

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 8


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    Methods of Drying

    • Sun or Solar Drying

    • Vine Drying

    • Room Drying

    • Oven Drying

    • Dehydrators

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 8


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    Sun Drying

    • Temperature – 85oF or higher

    • Low humidity

    • Several days of sunny weather

    • 2 drying racks or screens on blocks

    • Cover for the foods at night

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 8


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    Solar Drying

    • Uses a specially designed dehydrator to increase temperature and air current to speed up sun drying.

    • Solar dryers use a reflectant, such as aluminum foil or glass, to increase the sun’s temperature. Air vents at each end increase the flow of air.

    • Get directions for making a solar dryer from your county Extension Agent.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 8


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    Vine Drying

    • Pasteurization

    • Sun-dried fruits and vine-dried beans need treatment to kill insects/eggs.

    • Freezer Method -- seal food in freezer bags. Place in freezer at 0oF or low for at least 48 hours.

    • Oven Method -- place food in single layer on tray. Heat in 160oF oven for 30 minutes.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 8


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    Room Drying

    • Foods that can safely room dry:

      • Herbs

      • Nuts in shell

      • Partially dried high acid and high sugar foods, such as apple rings, can be finished by room drying

      • Chili peppers

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 8


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    Room Drying Tips

    • Warm air (80oF or above) with air circulating (might need a fan)

      • Sunny kitchen.

      • Prevent moldy

    • Dry on trays – 5-6 inches between

    • Cover trays to protect from insects

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 8


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    Oven Drying

    • Little or no investment in equipment

    • Not dependent on weather

    • Ovens can dry most foods.

    • Oven must be set to 140oF

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 8


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    Drying Equipment

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 8


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    Electric Dehydrator Features

    • Double wall construction; metal or high grade plastic

    • Enclosed heating elements

    • Enclosed thermostat with dial control, from 85-160oF

    • Timer

    • Fan or blower

    • 4 to 10 open mesh trays-sturdy, easy-wash, plastic

    • UL seal of approval -- warrantee and service

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 8


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    Equipment for Drying

    • Sharp paring knife

    • Collander/Steamer

    • Cutting board

    • Vegetable peeler

    • Food processor/vegetable slicer

    • Blender

    • Measuring utensils

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 8


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    Drying Foods

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 8


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    Preparation

    • Select high quality produce

    • Wash and core

    • Leave whole, half, or slice in equal pieces

    • Select an appropriate pretreatment

    • Whichever drying method you use, be sure to place in a single layer on the drying trays.

    • Pieces should not touch or overlap.

    • Follow directions for your drying method until dry.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 8


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    Pretreatments

    Fruit

    • Sulfuring

    • Ascorbic Acid

    • Fruit Juice Dip

    • Honey Dip

    • Syrup Blanching

    • Steam Blanching

      Vegetables

    • Blanching

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 8


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    Testing for Dryness

    Vegetables

    • Brittle

    • Flake when crushed

      Fruit

    • No visible moisture

    • Pliable, but not sticky or tacky

    • Folded in half–doesn’t stick to itself

    • Berries should rattle

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 8


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    Packaging and Storing

    • Cool 30-60 minutes

    • Pack loosely in plastic or glass jars

    • Seal containers tightly

    • Store in cool, dark place

    • Dried fruit needs conditioning (allow fruit to stand for 7-10 days, shake daily) Check moisture condensation!

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 8


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    Using Dried Foods

    • Dried fruits are delicious as a snack (try making some dried fruit leather) or in many prepared dishes.

    • Dried vegetables are also good in recipes when re-hydrated.

    • Dried fruits and vegetables are a good way to store emergency food.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 8


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    MODULE 9Freezing

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 9


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    MODULE 9: Units

    • Principles of Freezing

    • Freezers

    • Packaging Materials

    • Freezing Foods

    • Shelf-life of Frozen Foods

    • Emergencies

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 9


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    Principles of Freezing

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 9


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    Principles of Freezing

    • Does not sterilize food.

    • Extreme cold (0oF or colder):

      • stops growth of microorganisms and

      • Slows chemical changes, such as enzymatic reactions.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 9


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    Advantages of Freezing

    • Many foods can be frozen.

    • Natural color, flavor, and nutritive value retained.

    • Texture usually better than other methods of food preservation.

    • Foods can be frozen in less time than they can be dried or canned.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 9


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    Advantages of Freezing

    • Simple procedures.

    • Adds convenience to food preparation.

    • Proportions can be adapted to needs unlike other home preservation methods.

    • Kitchen remains cool and comfortable.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 9


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    Disadvantages of Freezing

    • Texture of some foods is undesirable because of freezing process.

    • Initial investment and cost of maintaining freezer is high.

    • Storage space limited by capacity of freezer.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 9


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    How Freezing Affects Food

    Chemical changes

    • Enzymes in vegetables

    • Enzymes in fruit

    • Rancidity

      Texture Changes

    • Expansion of food

    • Ice crystals

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 9


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    Freezers

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 9


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    Freezer Selection

    Consider:

    • Size

    • Shape

    • Efficiency

    • Defrosting features

    • Available floor area

    • Amount of freezer space needed

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 9


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    Freezer Selection

    What size?

    • General Rule

      • Allow 6 cubic feet of freezer space per person (3 cubic feet per person might be adequate if other methods of food preservation are used).

    • Standard Freezer

      • Capacity -- 35 pounds of frozen food per cubic foot or usable space.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 9


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    Types of Freezers

    Upright

    • 6 to 22 cubic feet

    • Convenient

    • Uses small floor space

    • Easy to load and unload

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 9


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    Types of Freezers

    Chest

    • 6 to32 cubic feet

    • Takes more floor space

    • More economical to buy and to operate than upright

    • Loses less air when opened

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 9


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    Types of Freezers

    Refrigerator - Freezer Combination

    • 2 to 6 cubic feet

    • Be sure can set temperature at 0ºF or colder

    • Freezer can be above, below, or beside refrigerator area

    • Other features

      • Self defrosting or manual defrost

      • Receptacle clips - prevent accidental disconnecting

      • Door locks and drains for defrosting

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 9


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    Location and Placement of Freezer

    • Place in convenient, cool, dry, well-ventilated area.

    • Do not place by stove, range, water heater or in the sun.

    • Do not push flush against wall. Leave space for air circulation and cleaning.

    • Be sure freezer is level.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 9


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    Packaging Materials

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 9


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    Packaging Materials

    • Moisture-vapor resistant

    • Durable and leak-proof

    • Not become brittle and crack at low temperatures.

    • Resistant to oil, grease, or water

    • Protects foods from absorption of off-flavors or odors

    • Easy to seal and mark

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 9


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    Types of Packaging Materials

    • Rigid Containers

      • Plastic freezer containers

      • Freezer boxes with liners

      • Coffee canisters

      • Wide mouth canning/freezing jars

    • Good for liquids, soft, juicy, or liquid-packed foods

    • May be reusable

    • Hold their shape and can be stored upright

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 9


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    Types of Packaging Materials

    Non-Rigid Containers

    • Bags

    • Wrappings - cellophane, heavy-duty aluminum foil, polyethylene, laminated paper

      Good for firm, non-juicy foods

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 9


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    Freezing Foods

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 9


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    General Freezing Instructions

    Selection

    • Freezing does not improve quality.

    • Choose the highest quality available.

    • Freeze promptly.

    • Remember some foods do not freeze well.

      Preparation

    • Work under sanitary conditions.

    • Follow recommended procedures.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 9


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    Packing Foods to be Frozen

    • Cool food before freezing.

      • Ice bath

    • Pack in serving size quantities.

      • Usually up to 1 quart

    • Pack foods tightly.

    • Allow for some headspace.

      • Vegetables like broccoli and asparagus, bony pieces of meat, tray packed foods, and breads, do not need any headspace.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 9


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    Packing Foods to be Frozen

    • Press all air from bagged foods, seal bags by twisting and then folding over loose edge (gooseneck). Secure with string, twist-tie or rubber band.

    • Use tight lid on rigid containers and keep sealing edge clean. Use freezer tape on loose fitting covers.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 9


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    Washing Fruits and Vegetables

    • Wash fruits and vegetables in warm water before freezer.

    • The only exception to this rule is that blueberries should not be washed before freezing.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 9


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    Labels

    • Name of product

    • Added ingredients

    • Form of food: halves, whole, or ground

    • Packing date

    • Number of servings or amount

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 9


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    Freezing

    • Freeze foods at <0ºF (set freezer at -10ºF at least 24 hours before freezing foods).

    • Freeze foods immediately.

    • Do not overload freezer with unfrozen food. Freeze amount that will freeze in 24 hours -- 2 to 3 pounds of food per cubic foot.

    • Pack already frozen foods together so they do not thaw.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 9


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    Freezing

    • Place unfrozen foods in contact with surfaces and in coldest parts of freezer.

    • Leave space so air can circulate.

    • When food is frozen, organize freezer into types of food.

    • Arrange frozen foods so that the foods frozen longer can be used first.

    • Keep a current frozen foods inventory.

    • Check freezer temperature periodically.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 9


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    Sweetened Packs for Fruit

    Syrup Pack

    • Better texture

    • Not needed for safety

    • Fruits should be covered with syrup

      • Place crumpled water-resistant paper in top of container

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 9


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    Sweetened Packs for Fruit

    Sugar Pack

    • Soft sliced fruits (strawberries, peaches, etc.) make on syrup when mixed with the right proportion of sugar.

    • Layer fruit and sugar.

    • Allow it to stand for 15 minutes.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 9


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    Unsweetened Packs for Fruit

    Dry Pack

    • Good for small whole fruits such as berries that do not need sugar.

    • Simply pack into containers and freeze.

    • Can freeze on a tray first, so pour easily.

      Pectin Syrup

    • Good for strawberries and peaches.

    • Mix 1 pkg. powdered pectin and 1 cup water. Bring to boil, boil 1 minute. Remove from heat, cool, and add 1-3/4 cups more water.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 9


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    Unsweetened Packs for Fruit

    Water or Unsweetened Juice Packs

    • Texture will be mushier.

    • Color poorer.

    • Freezes harder, takes longer to thaw.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 9


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    Packs for Purees or Juices

    • Pack as is, with or without sugar.

    • Add ascorbic acid if light-colored.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 9


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    Artificial Sweeteners

    • Can be used in the pectin syrup, juice, or water packs.

    • Or could be added just before serving

    • Do not help with color retention or texture, like sugar does.

    • Use amounts on product labels.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 9


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    Preventing Fruit Darkening

    • The following work well:

      • 1 teaspoon (3000 mg) ascorbic acid to one gallon of water

      • Commercial ascorbic acid mixture

      • Heating the fruit

    • The following do not work as well:

      • Citric acid solution

      • Lemon juice

      • Sugar syrup

      • Salt/vinegar solution

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 9


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    Preventing Discoloration during Freezing

    Ascorbic Acid

    • Is the most economical.

    • Use powdered or tablet form.

    • 1/2 teaspoon powdered ascorbic acid = 1500 mg

    • Crush tablets well.

    • Use amount specified for each fruit.

    • In syrup or liquid packs, add powder to liquid.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 9


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    Preventing Discoloration during Freezing

    • In sugar or dry packs, dissolve 2 to 3 tablespoons in cold water and sprinkle over fruit.

    • For crushed fruit, purees or juices, mix with fruit about 1/8 teaspoon per quart.

  • Ascorbic Acid Mixtures

    • Follow package directions

  • Home Food Preservation -- Module 8


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    Preventing Discoloration during Freezing

    • Citric Acid or Lemon Juice

      • Not as effective

      • May mask flavors

    • Steaming

      • Best for fruits that will be cooked before use

      • Follow directions in freezing publications

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 9


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    Freezing Vegetables

    • Select young, tender, high-quality vegetables.

    • Sort for size and ripeness.

    • Wash and drain before removing skins or shells.

    • Wash small lots at a time, lifting out of water. Do not soak.

    • Work in small quantities, preparing per instructions.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 9


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    Preventing Flavor and Color Changes in Vegetables

    Water blanching

    • Use 1 gallon water per pound of vegetables.

    • Place vegetables in blanching basket.

    • Lower into vigorously boiling water.

    • Cover and begin timing.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 9


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    Blanching Vegetables

    Steam Blanching

    • Use kettle with tight lid and basket.

    • Put 1 to 2 inches of boiling water in the bottom of pan.

    • Vegetables should be in a single layer in basket.

    • Start timing when covered.

    • Takes 1-1/2 times longer than water blanching.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 9


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    Blanching Vegetables

    Microwave Blanching (not recommended)

    • Enzymes might not be inactivated.

    • Does not save time or energy.

    • Use specific directions and blanch small quantities at a time.

    • After blanching, cool immediately in cold water.

    • Change water frequently.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 9


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    Types of Pack for Vegetables

    Dry Pack

    • Pack after blanched, cooled, and drained.

    • Pack quickly, excluding air.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 9


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    Types of Pack for Vegetables

    Tray Pack

    • After draining, spread in a single layer on a shallow pan.

    • Freeze firm.

    • After first hour, check often.

    • Pack quickly, excluding air.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 9


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    Freezing Meats and Poultry

    • Keep meat or poultry and everything they touch as clean as possible.

    • Keep cold until frozen.

    • Never stuff poultry before freezing.

    • Store-bought meats must be over-wrapped.

    • Freeze meats and poultry using the drugstore or butcher wrap (drugstore wrap preferred except for irregular meat cuts).

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 9


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    Freezing Fish

    • Pre-treat as directed to control rancidity, flavor changes or loss of liquid.

    • Package using one of the following:

      • Lemon-gelatin glaze

      • Ice glaze

      • Water

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 9


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    Lemon-gelatin Glaze

    • Mix 1/4 cup lemon juice and 1-3/4 cups water.

    • Dissolve 1 packet unflavored gelatin into 1/2 cup of this mixture.

    • Heat remaining mixture to boiling and add dissolved gelatin.

    • Cool, dip fish, wrap and freeze.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 9


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    Freezing Prepared Foods

    • Many can be frozen.

    • Follow directions in a credible freezer publication.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 9


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    Foods that Do Not Freeze Well

    • Cabbage, celery, cress, cucumbers, endive, lettuce, parsley, radishes

    • White potatoes

    • Cooked macaroni, spaghetti, rice

    • Egg whites

    • Meringue

    • Icings made from egg whites

    • Cream or custard filling

    • Milk sauces

    • Sour cream

    • Cheese

    • Mayonnaise or salad dressing

    • Gelatin

    • Fruit jelly

    • Fried foods

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 9


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    Thawing Foods for Serving

    Fruits

    • Best if served with ice crystals present.

    • Thaw:

      • In refrigerator -- 6 to 8 hours per pound of fruit in syrup

      • At room temperature -- 1 to 2 hours per pound

      • At room temperature in cool water -- 1/2 to 1 hour per pound

      • In microwave oven - follow manufacturer’s instructions.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 9


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    Thawing Foods for Serving

    • Dry sugar packs thaw faster than syrup packs.

    • Unsweetened packs thaw the slowest.

    • When used in recipes, allow for added sugar and more juice.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 9


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    Thawing Foods for Serving

    Vegetables

    • Cook without thawing except partially thaw corn-on-the-cob and leafy greens.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 9


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    Thawing Foods for Serving

    Meat, Poultry, and Fish

    • Can be cooked when thawed or frozen (might 1-1/2 times longer if cooked frozen).

    • Thaw:

      • In refrigerator

      • In microwave oven (follow manufacturer’s directions)

      • In cold water (keep water cold)

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 9


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    Shelf-Life of Frozen Foods

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 9


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    Temperature

    0ºF

    5ºF

    10ºF

    15ºF

    20ºF

    25ºF

    30ºF

    Length of Storage

    1 year

    5 months

    2 months

    1 month

    2 weeks

    1 week

    3 days

    Vegetable Storage

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 9


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    Emergencies

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 9


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    Freezer Emergencies

    • If power will be off, set freezer controls to 10ºF to -20ºF immediately.

    • Do not open door.

    • Foods stay frozen longer if freezer is full, well-insulated, and in cool area.

      • Full freezer -- keeps 2 to 4 days

      • Half full freezer -- 24 hours

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 9


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    Freezer Emergencies

    • If power interruption will be longer than 1 to 2 days, use dry ice:

      • 50 lbs -- keeps full 20 cubic foot freezer below freezing for 3 to 4 days

      • 50 lbs -- keeps half-full freezer for 2 to 3 days

    • Keep dry ice on boards or heavy cardboard on top of food.

    • Do not touch dry ice.

    • Do not open freezer.

    • Ventilate room.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 9


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    Refreezing Thawed Foods

    • Texture will not be as good.

    • General rule:

      • Refreeze if freezer temperature is 40ºF or colder or if ice crystals are still present.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 9


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    Best Advice for Freezing

    Freeze foods quickly.

    • Set freezer temperature at -10ºF 24 hours before freezing foods.

    • Spread packages out until frozen, then stack.

      Hold at 0ºF or colder for best quality.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 9


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    Module 10Curing Meats and Sausage Making

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 10


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    Further Processing of Meats

    Fletcher Arritt, Ph.D.

    Fletcher_Arritt@ncsu.edu

    919.513.0176

    Dr. Dana Hanson

    Dana_Hanson@ncsu.edu

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 10


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    Sausage Identification

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 10


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    History of Sausage Making

    • Latin word “salsus” means salted.

    • Chopped meat preserved by salting.

    • Production and consumption of sausages dates back 3,500 years.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 10


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    What Makes Sausage Unique?

    • Cooking method

    • pH

    • Moisture content

    • Salt level

    • Unique spices and ingredients

    • Meat source

    • Packaging method

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 10


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    Sausage Classifications

    • Fresh

    • Uncooked, smoked

    • Cooked

    • Cooked, smoked

    • Dry and semi-dry (fermented)

    • Specialty

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 10


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    Fresh Sausage

    • Uncured, comminuted, seasoned

    • Cook before serving

    • Refrigeration/freezing required

    • Type of Sausage:

      • Breakfast sausage (link or patty)

      • Bratwurst

      • Chorizo

      • Italian

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 10


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    Fresh Sausage

    Chorizo

    Bratwurst

    Fresh Sausage

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 10


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    Uncooked, Smoked Sausage*

    • Fresh, cured or uncured, encased, smoked

    • Cook before serving

    • Smoking imparts special flavor

    • Types of sausage:

      • Teewurst

      • Mettwurst

      • “Old World”Kielbasa

        * USDA does not permit this style of product in the U.S.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 10


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    Uncooked, Smoked Sausage

    German Metwurst

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 10


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    Curing

    • The addition of nitrate or nitrite

    • Usually done with sodium or potassium salts

    • Limit is 500 ppm nitrate and 200 ppm nitrite

    • Needed for color and antimicrobial activity

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 10


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    Cooked Sausages

    • Cured or uncured, comminuted, not smoked.

    • Served cold.

    • Types of Sausage:

      • Liver sausage

      • Cooked bratwurst

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 10


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    Cooked Sausages

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 10


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    Cooked, Smoked Sausages

    • Cured, comminuted, encased, smoked, cooked

    • Requires no cooking before serving, but usually heated

    • Types of Sausage:

      • Frankfurters

      • Bologna

      • Knockwurst

      • Polish

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 10


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    Cooked and Smoked Sausage

    Mortadella and

    bologna

    Frankfurters and hot dogs

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 10


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    Dry and Semi-dry Sausage

    • Cured, fermented, dried, may be smoked

    • Served cold

    • Fermented product

    • Inoculate with starter cultures

    • Low moisture or water activity

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 10


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    Dry and Semi-Dry Sausages

    • May use one or more strains of…

      • Pediococcus cerevisiae

      • Micrococcus aurantiacus

      • Lactobacillus planetarium

    • Sugar is added to the formula

    • Lactic acid produced

    • pH: Semi-dry: 4.8 - 5.1; Dry: 5.3 - 5.4

    • Moisture: Semi-dry -- 50 %; Dry: -- 35%

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 10


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    Dry and Semi-Dry Sausages

    • Some sausages formulations may include mold cultures for the development of unique flavors

    • Types of Sausage:

      • Summer Sausage

      • Salami

      • Lebanon Bologna

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 10


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    Dry and Semi-Dry Sausage

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 10


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    Specialty Sausages

    • Cured or uncured, rarely smoked

    • Served cold

    • Types of Sausage:

      • Head Cheese (Souse)

      • Loaves

      • Scrapple and Liver Pudding

      • Jellied products

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 10


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    Specialty Sausage

    Liver pudding

    Loaf products

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 10


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    What are the Bad Bugs?

    • Salmonella – undercooked meats

    • Clostridium perfringens – risk during cooling

    • Clostridium botulinum – canned, cooked and vacuum packaged meats (w/o nitrite)

    • Staphylococcus aureus – risks during cooling

    • Listeria monocytogenes – risk is high in RTE meats

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 10


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    Salmonella

    • Non-sporeformer, infectious

    • Intestinal tract of animals

    • More than 2,000 serovars known

    • Low pH prevents growth

    • Survives freezing and dehydration

    • Killed by mild heat

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 10


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    Clostridium perfringens

    • Sporeformer, toxicoinfectious disease

    • Soil, intestinal tract of animals, meat, vegetables, spices

    • Anaerobic

    • Optimum growth 43-45°C (109-113°F)

    • Very rapid growth in food at optimum temperatures

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 10


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    Clostridium botulinum

    • Sporeformer, toxigenic

    • Soil, marine sediment, vegetables, seafood

    • Anaerobic

    • No growth below pH 4.6

    • Spores are extremely heat resistant

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 10


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    Staphylococcus aureus

    • Non-sporeformer, toxigenic

    • Human skin or nasal passages

    • Resistant to high salt

    • Relevant for dry sausages and jerky-type products

    • Cells killed by mild heat

    • Enterotoxin very heat stable

      • needs > 106 cells to produce toxin in food

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 10


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    Listeria monocytogenes

    • Non-sporeformer, infectious

    • Animals, humans, environment (ubiquitous)

    • Low pH prevents growth

    • Survives dehydration and freezing

    • Concern in ready-to-eat products

    • Biofilm formation

    • Grows at refrigeration temperatures

    • Susceptible population:

      • pregnant women

      • immunocompromised individuals

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 10


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    MODULE 11 Home Food Preservation Education

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 11


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    Module 11: Units

    • Resources for Educators

    • Training Curricula

    • Risk Identification

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 11


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    Resources for Educators

    • Home Food Preservation Desk Reference

    • Home Food Preservation Educator Slide Set

      • The slide set contains 363 slides that can be used by food safety educators to review and update their knowledge about current home food preservation practices.

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 11


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    Training Curriculum

    Prepared by:

    • Renay Knapp, Henderson County

    • Tracy Davis, Rutherford County

    • Cathy Hohenstein, Buncombe County

    • Julie Padgett, McDowell County

    • Sue Estridge, Madison County

    • Sandi Sox, Polk County

    www.foodsafetysite.com/consumers/training/homepreservation.html


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    Training Curricula

    • Educator Training Tools

      • Program Planning Guide-- guidelines for setting up a program

      • Slide Set -- Instructional slide set

      • Evaluation Tool

    • Participant Handouts

      • Canning

      • Pickles

      • Jams and Jellies

      • Freezing

      • Drying

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 11


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    Risk Identification

    Home Food Preservation -- Module 11


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    Risk Identification

    • What are the risks associated with the final product?

    • What are the risks associated with the process?

    • Will storage matter?

    • Is this a safety or a quality issue?


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    Questions from consumers

    • “Can I safely can lard?”


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    Questions from consumers

    • “I opened a jar of tomatoes that I canned last summer and they are not THAT spoiled. Can I heat them up, boil them, and still eat them? They’re not THAT spoiled”


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    Questions from consumers

    • “I was told that vegetable oil on the rim of the jar lids would help to make a seal if they are old and have dried up. Will it work?”


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    Questions from consumers

    • “Every time I can asparagus, they turn out mushy, how can I get a crisp product? Can you pickle them?”


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    Questions from consumers

    • “Can you pickle corn, and if so, how?”


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    Questions from consumers

    • I’m afraid of pressure canning. I can my green beans using the boiling water method just like my mother did -- how long do you boil to make them safe? It has worked for years and we have never become ill”


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    Questions from consumers

    • “Can you make jelly out of apple peels and cores? We like to use all of the apple with no waste.”


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    Questions from consumers

    • “Can I use lime from my yard in my pickles?”


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    Questions from consumers

    • “I have just completed a hot water bath on my green beans and noticed several jars did not seal. What can I do? I processed them for 5 hours.”


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    Questions from consumers

    • “I am pressure processing green beans and the power has gone off. What do I do?”


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    Questions from consumers

    • “How do I cook a fruit cake in a pressure canner?”


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    Questions from consumers

    • “Can I freeze persimmons, whole, untreated?”


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    Questions from consumers

    • “I have canned venison from 1982 in my basement. Is it still safe to eat?”