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Assignment #1 Mind Map of Canada. On a blank sheet of paper, draw a map of Canada as close to reality as possible. Do this on your own – without looking at other people’s maps or any reference material such as an atlas.

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assignment 1 mind map of canada
Assignment #1Mind Map of Canada
  • On a blank sheet of paper, draw a map of Canada as close to reality as possible. Do this on your own – without looking at other people’s maps or any reference material such as an atlas.
  • On your map, label features such as provincial boundaries, provinces, cities, mountain ranges, and bodies of water.
mind map of canada
Mind Map of Canada
  • Which parts of Canada do you know best?
  • Which parts of your map are most incomplete?
  • Do you feel it is important to know where places are in Canada? Explain.
cluster 1 geographic literacy

Cluster 1: Geographic Literacy

SOC 20S Ms. Smaluck Unit 1

topics covered
Topics Covered
  • What is geography?
  • Physical/Human Geography


  • These notes are for you! Not me!
  • These notes will be used for “note quizzes”, which are open book. If you don’t have your notes, good luck!
what is geography
What is Geography?
  • Geography is the study of the earth’s physical and human systems along with the relationships/connections among them.
  • When studying any discipline of geo, various skills and tools are used.
    • Things like maps
    • air photos
    • satellite images
    • along with working with scales, distances and directions have long been used to study the earth.
what is geography1
What is Geography
  • New tools, such as
    • Global positioning system (GPS) receivers
    • Geographic information systems (GIS)
  • Software now allow geographers to create maps and manipulate and interpret data to better study and understand the world around us and our place/role in it.
what is geography2
What is Geography?

Geographers try to answer three questions:

  • Where are things located on Earth?
  • What are the connections between people and the Earth?
  • How can we illustrate or explain this information to understand it better?

Geography has two main focuses:

  • The Earth’s physical geography (natural things)
  • The Earth’s human geography (people and things related to people such as cities)
1 physical geography
1. Physical Geography
  • It includes the study of landforms, vegetation and climates of the world.
  • Knowledge of landforms, (plains, mountains, etc.) is helpful in determining what the land may be used for, (agriculture, construction of roads/railways)
  • Vegetation refers to natural vegetation, which is plant life that would grow in an area without human influence, (forests, grasslands).
  • Knowledge of climate, which includes temperature and precipitation, is important in the planning of various human activities, (farming, hydro).
1 physical geography1
1. Physical Geography
  • Includes the knowledge of natural resources and where they are located. Some understanding of the types of rocks and minerals and how they formed, helps us predict where the minerals may be found and how they can be mined and used.
  • Knowledge of natural resources helps in the understanding of the development of various industries and their locations, because having some kind of natural resource is often a major factor in determining where people will live.
  • Includes the study of natural processes and human caused events (erosion, earthquakes, volcanic activity, floods) that shape and change the landforms and affect human life and activities. Developing a better understanding of the interrelationships or connections between the physical environment and human activities may help lesson or prevent some disasters.
2 human geography
2. Human Geography
  • It deals with human presence, activities and impacts on the natural environment.
  • It includes the study of
    • Population
    • Migration and distribution
    • Economic activities
    • Settlement patterns
    • Modification of the environment by humans
2 human geography1
2. Human Geography
  • The impact of early human societies on the natural environment was minimal because small nomadic populations existed. They survived by fishing, hunting, and gathering off the land. Tools and dwelling were “simple”, made from the natural materials (wood, stone, bone).
2 human geography2
2. Human Geography
  • With the domestication of plants and animals, greater changes were made to the physical environment. Land was cleared of trees and grasses for agriculture and permanent homes.
  • The rise of agriculture, resource extraction and manufacturing activities led to more complex economic and political systems. Transportation networks were needed, political boundaries were established and larger permanent societies developed, changing the natural environment.
  • One of the greatest challenges faced by humans today is how to manage the use of energy resources. It must be done in a sustainable fashion without causing permanent damage to the environment in the form of land, air, water pollution and climate change.
topics covered1
Topics Covered
  • Map Projection/ Mercator Projection/ Equal-Area Projections
  • Features of a map
  • Scale (Map Scale)
  • Types of Maps
map projection
Map Projection
  • A method used to transfer features of the globe onto a flat surface.
    • 3 important things to remember about the different kinds of map projections are;
    • Each projection has certain characteristics that make it useful for a specific purpose.
    • Each projection has some kind of distortion, such as enlarging some areas and shrinking others, or providing inaccurate directions.
    • A map projection should be used only for the purpose for which it was designed.
1 mercator projection
1. Mercator Projection
  • A type of map projection in which compass bearings are correct, making it useful for marine or navigator charts, however, it generally distorts distances, areas and shapes of the land masses and oceans.
  • A problem with the mercator projection, according to representatives at the United Nations was;
    • It made countries near the equator appear smaller in size, while those closer to the poles appeared larger in size.
    • Many representatives of the tropical countries felt the importance of their countries had been underestimated because they appeared smaller on the maps, than they actually were.
2 equal area projection
2. Equal – Area Projection
  • A map projection used by most nations and international organizations in which the correct sizes of all countries are shown in relation to one another, avoiding most size distortion.
what is a map
What is a Map?
  • A map is a representation of the Earth’s features drawn on a flat surface.
  • Maps use symbols and colours to represent features of an area, simplifying the real world.
features on a map
Features on a Map
  • Title – identifies the area shown, topic, focus of the map.
  • Legend – explains the meaning of symbols and colours used on the map.
  • Scale – compares distance on the map with actual distance on the earth’s surface.
  • Date of Publication – indicates how recent the map is
  • Direction – represented by either a direction arrow/symbol or by the use of latitude and longitude.
  • Border – sets the map apart from other information
map labelling colouring
Map Labelling & Colouring
  • Cartography is the art of drawing accurate, easily readable, attractive maps.
  • Labels
    • Should be neatly printed
    • Should be spelled correctly
    • Should be parallel to the base of the map (except for natural features such as rivers and mountain ranges)
    • A dot should be used to locate cities, with the name of the city as close to the dot as possible.
map labelling colouring1
Map Labelling & Colouring
  • Labels (continued)
    • Larger features usually have larger labels
    • Labels for similar features should be the same size and font – for example:
      • Water Body
      • City
      • PROVINCE
      • C O U N T R Y
    • Labels should not block other information on the map
map labelling colouring2
Map Labelling & Colouring
  • Colouring
    • Maps should be properly colour coded to show the different areas on the map
    • Shade consistently so that there are no light or dark patches of one colour within one feature
    • Use solid colours only, not shading patterns
    • White or black are not acceptable shading colours
    • Grey should be used for areas not important to the map
    • Blue should only be used for water bodies
scale map scale
Scale (Map Scale)
  • Scale is a measurement on a map that represents an actual distance on the earth’s surface.
  • The 2 general categories of maps, according to scale-use are;
    • Large-scale Maps
    • Small-scale Maps
  • Large-scale maps
    • maps that show a large amount of detail of a small area, such as a map with a scale of 1:50 000 or 1:25 000. ( 1cm on the map represents 50 000 cm on the earth’s surface)
  • Small-scale maps
    • maps that how a small amount of detail of a large area, such as a map with a scale of 1:250 000 or 1:500 000.
    • Used for general details such as political, physical and economic information.
scale mapping our location
Scale – Mapping Our Location
  • Anderson Collegiate Map

You are here!

scale mapping our location1
Scale – Mapping Our Location
  • Anderson Community Map

You are here!

scale mapping our location2
Scale – Mapping Our Location
  • Town of Whitby Map

You are here!

scale mapping our location3
Scale – Mapping Our Location
  • Region of Durham Map

You are here!

scale mapping our location4
Scale – Mapping Our Location
  • Southern Ontario Map

You are here!

scale mapping our location5
Scale – Mapping Our Location
  • Ontario Map

You are here!

scale mapping our location6
Scale – Mapping Our Location
  • Canada Map

You are here!

scale mapping our location7
Scale – Mapping Our Location
  • World Map

You are here!

3 broad headings of maps
3 “Broad” headings of maps
  • General-purpose Maps
  • Thematic Maps
  • Topographic Maps
1 general purpose maps
1. General-purpose Maps
  • Maps that contain many different types of information on them. May show things like; bodies of water, roads, railway lines, parks, elevation, towns and cities.
  • They give a broad understanding of the location and features of an area.
2 thematic maps
2. Thematic Maps
  • Maps that show information on one particular or specific topic or theme (ex. climate, vegetation, pop.)
  • Thematic map showing electricity generating stations in Canada
3 topographic map
3. Topographic Map
  • Large scale maps showing both natural and human made features. They use symbols/colors to show a variety of features. (ex. mountains, buildings)
  • Topographic Map of Blue Mountain (Collingwood)
assignment 2 create a map
Assignment #2 Create a Map
  • Create a map from the Drcss to your house.
  • Include; title, legend, scale, date of publication, direction.
  • Use color and BE NEAT!!
assignment 3 political map of canada
Assignment #3Political Map of Canada
  • Add to this map:
    • Provinces
    • Territories
    • Capital cities
    • “Other” cities
    • 6 map essentials
    • Different coloured provinces*
    • First and last name

*You CAN use the same colour more than once, so long as it doesn’t touch a province or territory with that same colour.

drainage map of canada
Drainage Map of Canada
  • Add to this map:
    • Oceans, Lakes, Rivers, Bays, and Gulfs as listed on your handout
    • 6 map essentials
    • Canada land coloured green
    • All water coloured blue
    • All other land coloured grey (or beige)
    • First and last name
topics covered2
Topics Covered
  • Compass Work
  • Latitude/Longitude
  • Times Zones/International Date Line
  • Map Scales
two things when giving direction
Two things when giving direction
  • Where you are
  • Where you want to go
compass work
Compass Work
  • Compass points: are directions on a compass, north,

south, etc.

  • Compass rose: a diagram in the shape of a flower, showing directions, (compass points), and bearings, (measured clockwise from north).
  • Cardinal points: are the 4 principal points of a compass, north (N), south (S), east (E), west (W).
  • Ordinal points: are the secondary points of a compass, found half way between the 4 principal points, north- east (NE), north-west (NW), south-east (SE), south-west (SW).
compass work1
Compass Work
  • Compass bearings: degrees on a compass, measure in a clockwise direction from 0’ (north) to 360’. (0’ and 360’ are the same point on the compass.
alphanumeric grid
Alphanumeric Grid
  • Alphanumeric grid: is a grid that uses letters and numerals to identify squares of a grid pattern on a map, used to help find location. The grid squares are identified by a letter on one side of the map and a number on another side. *Letter/#
  • Latitude: the distance north/south of the equator, measured in degrees.
      • Equator is 0’, North/South Pole is 90’
  • Longitude: the distance east/west of the Prime Meridian, measured in degrees.
    • Prime Meridian is 0’
  • To find the location of a place on a map using latitude and longitude;
    • One finds the location at the intersection of a line of latitude and a line of longitude.

Global positioning system / (GPS): is a satellite navigation system that is used to compute the exact latitude a longitude position of any place on the earth.

  • Some ways GPS technology is being used today are;
    • Environmentalists have been tracking wildlife.
    • Shipping companies use it to monitor the progress of delivery trucks.
    • Some automobiles have onboard maps to show current locations and provide directions.
time zone
Time Zone
  • A division of the earth’s surface, usually extending across 15’ longitude that establishes a uniform time. Usually everything within that 15’ has the same time, with a one hour difference between each division.
  • Standard time: the “same” time which all places within a time zone have.
lines on the earth
Lines on the Earth

There are 6 time zones in Canada

  • Time Zones
time zone1
Time Zone
  • The time zone system proposed by Canada’s Sir Stanford Fleming works as follows;
    • The prime meridian, (0’ or 0 meridian), is the center of a time zone extending 7.5 degrees on either side. Time in this zone is called universal time, with the standard time in the other zones compared to it.
    • Since the earth rotates form west to east, time zones east of the prime meridian have times that are ahead of the universal time, by the correct interval, while time zones west of the primer meridian have times behind the universal time, by the correct interval.
time zones
Time Zones
  • Countries often modify the shapes of time zones;
    • For political reasons, as it is more convenient to have all the country, provinces or city in one time zone.
international date line
International Date Line
  • A line which generally follows the 180’ line of longitude , where one day ends and the next day begins. It will zigzag to avoid dividing land masses or islands belong to a country.
  • As one crosses the date line, westward, (going west), a day is added, while as one crosses it eastward, a day is subtracted.
3 different ways in which scales can be represented on a map
3 different ways in which scales can be represented on a map
  • Direct statement scale
    • A scale in which words are used to describe the relationship between a distance on a map and specific distance on the earth’s surface.
        • Ex. 1 cm to 10 km (1cm = 10 km)
  • Line scale
    • A scale where a line is divided into units that represent the actual units on the ground.
        • Ex. ________________
  • Representative fraction scale (R.F)
    • Is a scale given as a ration of the distance on the map of the distance on the ground. One unit on the map represents a certain number of the same units on the earth’s surface, with the units being any measure (cm inches, etc.)
      • Ex. 1:50 000 (1 cm = 50 000 cm)

A positive and negative point about R.F scale is;

    • Positive: it is practical, as everyone all over the world can use it, regardless of the units of measurement use by the country.
    • Negative: not very useful when we want to indicate “actual” distances between places, as we often deal with the larger unit measurement such as kilometers, miles, etc. and scale conversion is needed.
topics covered3
Topics Covered
  • Satellites
  • Remotes Sensing
  • Landsat/SPOT/Radarsat
  • Ways to collect data using satellites

Satellite – a manufactured object

that is launched by a rocket and

circles the earth.

    • Used to communicate, to study the earth’s resources and to aid military
  • Remote Sensing – is the study of the characteristics of the earth using photographs and electronic images taken from aircraft and satellites.

The difference between the 2 types of remote sensing used to study the earth is;

    • The satellite images cover a large area and show less detail, while aerial photographs taken from the airplane show more detail of a smaller area.
2 types of orbits in which satellites can be placed into are
2 Types of orbits in which satellites can be placed into are;
  • Geostationary Orbit
    • The satellite is 36 000 km above the earth and moving at the same speed as the earth’s rotation, which keeps it exactly over the same place on the earth.
    • This provides an almost continuous observation of the earth’s changing weather for that location.

North-South Orbit

    • The satellite moves north to south and vice versa and appears to shift westward with each orbit because the earth is rotating from west to east.
    • The combination of the 2 movements allows the complete coverage of the earth’s surface over a period of time, called the “orbit cycle”.

Landsat (land satellite)(USA) and SPOT (European) satellites examine the earth’s surface;

    • During daylight hours with different ranges of wavelengths, which show different characteristics of the earth’s surface.
    • For examples, some are used to identify types of vegetation, while others identify soil moisture conditions.

False Colours – are colours that artificially added to satellite images of the earth to make patterns they detect more obvious. These colours would not actually be seen from space.

    • Pg. 64 of textbook
canada s radarsat
Canada’s Radarsat
  • The first advanced earth observation satellite used by Canada to monitor environmental changes and provide information for resource development.
  • Sends radar or microwave signals to the earth and records the microwaves reflected back. It then sends this data for processing to receiving stations of the ground, located at Gatineau, QC, Prince Albert, SK, and Fairbanks Alaska. When it is out of range of these stations, it stores the data on tape for later transmission.

The radar is electronically programmed with a choice of 7 different beam modes, (giving levels of detail and swath/area widths), and the beams can be pointed at different angles.

  • Radarsat does not rely on sunlight to illuminate the earth’s surface, so it can make images 24 hours a day, under any weather conditions, as its signal can penetrate clouds, rain and fog.
ways data is collected through remote sensing
Ways data is collected through remote sensing
  • To study weather and climate – development and movement of storms
  • Agricultural management – crop types and growth
  • Land-cover classification and forest management –forest inventory , assessing fire damage
  • Map making and updating – update legal boundaries, urban expansion
  • Geology and mineral exploration

6. Mapping sea ice patterns

- plotting safe ship routes,

7. Monitor the environment

- locate pollution and effects, study wildlife habitats

8. Monitor oceans and coastal regions

- oil spills, assess fish stock

9. Analyze water resources

- monitor floods, snow thickness

10. Study the impact of geologic events

- earthquakes, volcanic eruption


Seismologist – a scientist who studies earthquakes or similar disturbances and the effect they produce on the earth’s crust.

  • Convection – a process by which a heated fluid rises and carries the heat with it, it is then replaced by a cool fluid which in turn is heated and rises, creating a flow of material
  • Erosion – the wearing away of the earth’s surface followed by the movement to other locations of materials that have worn away. Agents or forces involved are wind, rain, running water, and ice.

Fossils – are imprints in rock of the remains of a plant or animal that lived millions of years ago.

  • Folding – the bucking or bending of rock layers usually occurs when great pressures occur deep in the earth’s core and the movement of the earth’s plates.

Faulting – the movement along a crack or cracks in the earth’s crust. Involves great pressures in the earth and movement of the earth’s plates, causing land to rise up or fall down.


Sediments – eroded material that is deposited by water, wind, or ice. Small , fine particles of sand, silt, clay, etc.

  • Bedrock – is the solid rock portion of the earth, beneath the soil. Often called the foundation or basement rock.

Ice Age – a period of time when freezing temperatures created ice sheets across the continents.

  • Glaciers – slow moving mass or sheets of ice.
2 theories position of the continents
2 Theories Position of the Continents
  • Continental Drift Theory:
      • A theory stating that 300 million years ago, all of the earth’s land masses, which were in constant movement, collided to form 1 super continent called Pangia.
      • Then about 200 million years ago, it broke apart and the continent drifted in different directions, to their present day location.
      • It was believed that only the continents moved/drifted.

2. Plate Tectonic Theory:

  • A theory stating that the earth’s outer shell is made up of about 20 plates, most made up of continents and oceans.
  • These plates are slowly moving over a weak layer of hot rock, far below the earth’s surface.
  • It is believed that unequal distribution of heat within the earth cause convection currents to move the plates, which have caused the continents to move to where they are today.
  • One should note that the continents are still moving a centimeter or so each year.
3 classifications of rock
3 Classifications of Rock
  • Igneous Rock - rock formed from the cooling and hardening of molten rock (magma or lava).

  • Metamorphic Rock – rock formed when sedimentary and igneous rocks are subjected to great heat and pressure. Heat melts the rock, materials mix and pressure re-solidifies or hardens the rock giving it different characteristics than before.

  • Sedimentary Rock – rock usually formed in layers from the compression and hardening of sediments, over millions of years.