L08 FACULTY OF EDUCATION EDU5810 EDUCATIONAL POLICY AND PLANNING DR. RAMLI BIN BASRI ROOM G28, TEL: office 03-8946 8248, H/P 019 224 1332 (smsprefered) E-MEL: email@example.com
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT AND • STRATEGIC PLANNING
WHAT IS STRATEGY? • Latin: Strategos (the art of generalship, or how to be an effective general). • Strategic … “choosing how best to respond to circumstances of a dynamic and sometimes hostile environment” • “Being strategic requires recognizing the choices and committing to one set of responses instead of another”(Allison & Kaye, 1997)
WHAT IS STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT? • “Strategic management is art and science of formulating, implementing, and evaluating cross-functional decisions that enable an organisations to achieve its objectives” (David, 2001) • “Strategic management is the process of formulation the strategic plan and implementation of the plan. It involves strategic analysis, strategic choice and strategic implementation” (Fidler, 2002)
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT A continuous process of • Identifying vision, mission, objective • Developing appropriate strategies • Implementing strategies • Monitoring implementation to achieve objective (Wright, P. , Pringle, C. and Kroll, M. Strategic Management, 1992)
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT & STRATEGIC PLANNING • “Strategic management is the process of formulating, implementing, and evaluating cross-functional decisions that enable an organisations to achieve its objectives” • Strategic planning is the process of formulating strategic plan. • Strategic management is the ‘brain’ to management; and • Strategic plan is the backbone to management. EdarisAbbu Bakar, 2004.
The ABCs of Strategic Planning A Who and What are we? What do we do now? Why? B What do we want to be and do in the future? Why? C How do we get there?
STRATEGIC PLAN • A strategic plan is a written document which describes where your institution wants to be in the future (usually three to five years), and the broad areas of activity that it will undertake to achieve this vision. It is different from an operational plan (or work plan), which details activities over the next 12 months (at least). • These two types of plan are closely connected, however, as the operational plans should be moving the school towards the vision defined in the strategic plan (Davies, 2002).
STRATEGIC PLANNING IN EDUCATION Answers these questions • What does the school aims to achieve? • How to achieve? • When will the aim be achievable? • For whom?
...STRATEGIC PLANNING To ensure success, strategic planning • Requires involvement of all staff to ensure shared vision, commitment and sense of belonging • Needs to be developed as a culture of an organization and practiced by all members of the organization.
A PRACTICAL MODEL FOR STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT INITIAL VISION INSTITUTIONAL VALUES & CULTURE EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT ANALYSIS INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT ANALYSIS CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS INSTITUTIONAL VISION MISSION STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES SWOT ANALYSIS SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES/ TACTICAL PLAN/KPI ACTION PLAN/ OPERATIONAL PLAN EVALUATION
WHY AN INSTITUTION NEEDS A VISION? • As future direction for the institution • Develop confidence to manage situation or change • Encourage members of institution to work towards excellence • Develop strength and competitiveness. • Motivates change • Uniting all staff towards a common goal or purpose
1- INITIAL VISION & INSTITUTIONAL VISION • Raw or initial vision proposed by management to members of an educational institution • Purpose to initiate members to think for the future of the institution • To be refined by all members into the final vision of the institute • The process includes…
a) INSTITUTIONAL VALUES AND CULTURE • Current values and culture needs to be considered seriously in defining vision (management, staff, teachers, students, parents, community) • Positive values and culture are catalyst to achievement of vision • Negative values and culture requires adjustment, prior to the formation of vision
…a) INSTITUTIONAL VALUES AND CULTURE • Duty of management, PTA, local community to instill positive values and culture before the process of formation of vision. • A common or shared value system • Students, principal, teachers, staff, education officials, parents, community and other stakeholders, politicians.
b) EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT ANALYSIS (PEST) External environment factors that determine achievement of vision: • Strength of the economic environment • Stable and supportive political environment • Social & cultural environment which puts high emphasis on educational excellence • Technological know-how.
c) INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT ANALYSIS Internal or institutional factors are main actors that determines the achievement of vision: • Institutional culture • Infrastructure and physical condition of the institution • Features or style of management • Work culture, etc
d) CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS All CSF’s must be identified in the process of refining the initial vision (CSF are conditions required for achievement of vision) • Commitment and support of management • Staff: Knowledge, competency, commitment, teamwork, etc • Financial resources • Organizational environment • Community support • Organizational and environmental politics, etc
2-INSTITUTIONAL VISION • The vision agreed by all members of the institution • The aim and direction for the future • Becomes the “culture” of the institution • Examples of vision statements…
3- MISSION • How do we get there • How to achieve the vision
4. SELECTING STRATEGIES/STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES • Steps or strategies to achieve the mission. Each strategy or strategic objectives is formed through SWOT analysis • Internal environment: identify strengths an weaknesses • External environment: identify opportunities and threats • SWOT Analysis for the institution to ensure steps taken are based on strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats
SWOT FACTORS IN THE EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT OF ORGANIZATION A) THAT CAN HELP TO ACHIVE ORGANIZATIONAL OBJECTIVE – OPPURTUNITIES B) THAT PREVENT THE ACHIEVEMENT OF ORGANIZATIONAL OBJEKTIVE - THREATS FACTORS IN THE INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT OF ORGANIZATION A) THAT CAN HELP TO ACHIVE ORGANIZATIONAL OBJECTIVE – STRENGTH B) THAT PREVENT THE ACHIEVEMENT OF ORGANIZATIONAL OBJEKTIVE - WEAKNESS ORGANISATIONAL OBJECTIVE
5. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES/KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS Short term objectives or key performance indicators aimed at achieving the strategic objectives. Each specific objective or key performance indicator must be “SMARTER” • Specific • Measurable • Attainable • Realistic • Time bound • Exiting • Rewarding
6. ACTION PLAN • Action plan or operation plan (program and activities) is the detail steps and activities undertaken or implemented to achieve the strategic objectives
7. EVALUATION • Each activity implemented in the action plan needs to be evaluated to asses its performance or contribution towards the specific objectives • Positive outcome contributes to specific objectives and realization of vision • Each action undertaken within the action plan contributes towards the realization of vision • Corrective and contingency actions needs to be taken when performance is not in line with targeted performance.
BENEFITS OF SP IN EDUCATION • SP is a strategic and systematic instrument to understand the pressure and changes on future environment • SP promotes visionary leadership • SP makes management more proactive to undertake actions and initiatives designed to handle new situations effectively and undertake strategies to involve staff to participate in the organizational strategic future • SP promotes efficient management of time, management of pressure and conflict • SP prepares organization to “managing change” systematically within the internal and external environment
…BENEFITS OF SP IN EDUCATION • SP process involves all members of the institution, it reduces pressure and resistance (within members) to change • SP generates teamwork, commitment, motivation, institutional harmony by understanding and commitment to one vision • SP eliminates duplication in duty and authority which is detrimental to the organization system • SP is part of the overall institutional performance monitoring system • SP is about decision making. Decision made today has important bearing on the future.
3. STRATEGIC PLANNING PROCESS • Internal environment • External general environment • External education environment • Identifying strategies • Selection of strategies • Key performance indicators • Implementation of strategies • Monitoring and evaluation • Feedback • Contingencies
1. Internal Environment Analysis • Gather and analyze institutional data and information • Objective: Identify strength and weaknesses • Data includes basic data enrolment, teachers, teachers and students backgrounds, academic achievement, discipline, facilities, leadership etc.
2. External General Environment (PEST) Analysis • Analyze external environment, trends and its impact on education (global, regional and national trends). • Objective: Identify current and future opportunities and threats. • Economy (national, regional and global trends, resource allocation, industry trends, curriculum, teachers, focus, emphasis, finance, etc) • Politics (current and future policy, governance, laws) • Technology (education technology trends) • Socio-cultural ( population backgrounds, culture, values) • Ecology (sensitivity on the environment)
3. External Educational Environment Analysis • Client: Clientele analysis to identify opportunities and threats. Students are major clients, therefore must be able to satisfy students needs and wants or risk loosing students. • Competitors: are threats to organisation, therefore must have advantages over competitors or risk loosing students to competitors.
4. Identifying Strategies • Strategies identified based on internal and external analisis (SWOT analisis)
5. Selection of Strategies • Decides among alternative strategies, strategies that can fulfill the organizational objectives • Employ several techniques: SWOT Matrix, Matrix market share, industrial growth: Boston Consulting Group Model, (BCG Matrix), General Electric Model (GE)
6. Key Performance Indicator • Identify key performance indicators for each strategy • Periodic Indicators • Financial performance • Customer knowledge • Internal business processes • Learning & growth
7. Implementation Strategies Time table of implementation • Date: from when to when • Strategy: Form • Program: eg courses • Objective: must be SMARTER (specific. measurable, achievable, realistic, timely, exiting and rewarding) • Sources: finance, human resource, tools • Responsibility: who is involved? • Accountability: who is accountable?
8. Monitoring and Evaluation • What to measure :Quantitative (pre and post), Qualitative (at the end of implementation) • Performance standard • Measurement of actual performance • Comparing performance and standard • Undertake corrective action
9. Feedback 1. Strategic plan consistent with • organizational objective, mission • In line with internal and external environment 2. Strategic plan in line with • Expertise/ resource • Risk • Time table 3. Implementation • Supported or resented by staff
10.Contingency Planning Alternative plans that can be put into effect if certain key events do not occur as expected
Strategy Review, Evaluation,& Control • Why SP Fails? • Misjudgment of Relevant Factors • No Commitment • Lack in Resource Allocation • Lack of Monitoring • Ineffective in Communication • Change in Leadership and Management • Cannot Cope with Changes • Unpredicted Circumstances
LET’S GO INTO DETAIL Next week
STRATEGIC PLANNING • What is Vision, Mission & Strategy? • What is strategy and strategic planning? • What is SWOT?
VISION • A concrete word of what the organization intends ultimately to become by some defined future time, so as to provide a basis for formulating strategies and objectives
MISSION • The core purpose of our organization – its express why the organization exists!
STRATEGY • Is the determination of the basic long-term goals and objectives of an enterprise and adoption of courses of action and allocation of resources for carrying out these goals. Continued
STRATEGY • “Strategos” - referred to a military commander during the age of Athenian Democracy • It is an umbrella plan encompassing a number of smaller plans for some objective. • A strategy is an overall approach, based on an understanding of the broader context in which you function, your strength and weaknesses, and the problem you attempting to address Continued
A strategy gives you a framework within which to work, clarifies what you are trying to achieve and the approach you intend to use. • It does not spell out specific activities. • Strategies are the key elements of change that need to be addressed to drive the organization towards its vision.
CHARACTERISTICS OF A STRATEGY • A means to the ends of an organization. • It requires careful monitoring and analysis of changes in the organization’s external environment • It takes into account the relationship between the external forces and internal resources. • It involves the determination of the long-term mission and objectives of the organization and prescribes the courses of action needed to achieve competitive advantage.