Notes E 4.3. Meiosis is a special form of cell division. Meiosis is necessary for sexual reproduction. Organisms that reproduce sexually produce gametes , sex cells that contain ½ as many chromosomes as body cells. Eggs —female gametes Sperm —male gametes
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Meiosis is a special form of cell division.
Organisms that reproduce sexually produce gametes, sex cells that contain ½ as many chromosomes as body cells.
In fertilization, 2 gametes join. The resulting cell is 2n, or diploid. I has pairs of chromosomes, with a homolog from each parent.
Before meiosis, the DNA in each homolog is copied . The copies are referred to as chromatids and held together by a centromere. Meiosis differs from mitosis because:
In meiosis I, the first 2 daughter cells are produced. They receive one of the homologs.
In meiosis II, these 2 daughter cells divide again, splitting the homolog so that each cell gets one of the copies.
Each of the 4 resulting daughter cells has half the number of chromosomes needed for offspring.
Meiosis produces haploid (1n) daughter cells that have half of the genetic material of the parents.
Meiosis produces gametes, cells specialized for reproduction.