The first step in acquiring knowledge is knowing the names of things AN ELECTRONIC FLORA OF SABA Coccoloba venosa Scott Mori, Ph.D. Nathaniel Lord Britton Curator of Botany and Carol Gracie THE NEW YORK BOTANICAL GARDEN
PURPOSE OF PRESENTATION • Introduce reader to scientific names. • Provide brief insight into modern plant classification. • Provide a history of the Plants and Lichens of Saba project. • Describe how to use these web pages. • Promote an appreciation for the beauty, complexity, and importance of Saban plants.
PLANTS AND THEIR PARTS ARE KNOWN BY SCIENTIFIC NAMES DERIVED, FOR THE MOST PART, FROM LATIN AND GREEK. THUS, STUDYING PLANTS REQUIRES SOME DEGREE OF EXPERTISE IN THE LANGUAGE OF BOTANY WHICH IS LIKE LEARNING ANY OTHER LANGUAGE -- SOMETHING THAT SHOULD NOT BE DIFFICULT FOR THE MULTILINGUAL CITIZENS OF SABA. SEE NEXT SLIDE FOR THE SCIENTIFIC NAME AND CLASSIFICATION OF THE BLACK-EYED SUSAN, THE NATIONAL FLOWER OF SABA
CLASSIFICATION OF THE BLACK-EYED SUSAN Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG) species Thunbergiaalata Bojer ex Sims Family Acanthaceae Order Lamiales informal group euasteridsI informal group core eudicots informal group eudicots
TODAY, CLASSIFICATION OF PLANTS IS BASED, TO A LARGE EXTENT, ON MOLECULAR DATA WITH THE RESULTS DEPICTED IN EVOLUTIONARY TREES CALLED CLADOGRAMS. THIS INFORMATION IS AVAILABLE AT THE ANGIOSPERM PHYLOGENY GROUP WEBSITE AT http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/. THE NEXT SLIDE SHOWS THE POSITION OF THE BLACK-EYED SUSAN IN THIS CLASSIFICATION SCHEME.
CLADOGRAM OF HYPOTHESIZED EVOLUTIONARY RELATIONSHIPS AS DEPICTED BY THE APG SYSTEM BASED ON MOLECULAR DATA Black-eyed Susan
PLANTS AND LICHENS OF SABA • A multidisciplinary, multinational project. • Goal one is to document the species of plants and lichens on Saba with specimens and images. • Goal two is to make the data available via the internet in a specimen-based, illustrated checklist. • Goal three is to work toward producing an electronic flora of Saba. • Goal four is to promote ecotourism that does not have a negative impact on the island’s ecology.
T H E P A R T N E R S
AUGUST 2006 EXPEDITION (supported by Conservation International) THE FIRST EXPEDITION
COLLECTION OF SPECIMENS • Specimens are collected to document the presence of plant and lichen species on Saba. • If an identification is questioned, the specimen can be consulted to confirm or correct the identification. • Specimens are called vouchers and are deposited in herbaria where they can be consulted. • Collections we gather on Saba are archived at The New York Botanical Garden. • All specimen data and images of the collections are on this web site.
SCOTT MORI AND JAMES JOHNSON COLLECTING AND PRESSING PLANTS Photos by C. Gracie
FIELD PRESSING THE COLLECTIONS SPECIMENS ARE SCIENTIFICALLY MORE USEFUL IF THEY ARE PRESSED IN THE FIELD
PLANTS AND LICHENS OF SABA WEB SITE LAUNCHED ON MARCH 2007 BY WILL JOHNSON
THE IMAGES ON THE LEFT SIDE OF THE PAGE ALLOW ACCESS TO INFORMATION INFORMATION ABOUT FLOWERING PLANTS, GYMNOSPERMS, FERNS, MOSSES, MARINE ALGAE, AND LICHENS WHEN THE CURSOR GOES OVER THE IMAGE, THE NAME OF THE PLANT OR FUNGAL GROUP IT REPRESENTS APPEARS Click here for flowering plants Flowering Plants
THERE ARE TWO BANNERS THE TOP IS FOR NAVIGATING ON THE PARENT SITE AND THE SECOND FOR NAVIGATING THE FLOWERING PLANTS SITE ADDITIONAL INFORMATION IS FOUND UNDER “RESOURCES” ON EACH PAGE
THE SPECIMENS PAGE • Access the page by clicking on “SPECIMENS.” • This page allows you to search for information about flowering plant specimens collected from Saba. • Note that the specimens page has a quick search box. • A link leads to an advanced search page.
You can search for: scientific names common names collections many other things For example, type in the scientific name Charianthus purpureus in the search box. Charianthus purpureus
Three collections with that name are in the database. Click on the photo or the species name to see the details.
The top half of the page provides the information about the specimen and a Google map showing where the collection was made.
The bottom half of the page shows all of the images associated with this collection. This includes a scan of the herbarium specimen made to document the presence of the species in the locality where it was collected. Click on the image to make it larger.
YOU CAN HELP US CORRECTLY IDENTIFY PLANTS. Comments can be sent about the specimen by clicking on “send comments.”
E-MAIL COMMENTS FROM PAP0 VIVES HEYLIGER (Puerto Rican Botanist)
TWO DIFFERENT SPECIES WERE DETERMINED BY US AS SIDA ACUTA THANKS TO PAPO VIVES THIS HAS NOW BEEN CORRECTED! Sida glabra Sida acuta
An advanced search opens many more possibilities, e.g., searching by flower color or specific locality. Here we ask what species with red flowers have been collected on the Mt. Scenery Trail? Mt. Scenery red
Six species have been collected on the Mt. Scenery Trail with red or partly red flowers.
THE CHECKLISTS PAGE • Access the page by clicking on “CHECKLISTS.” • This page provides a list of all families, genera, and species known from Saba. • Clicking on a name leads to all specimens collected of that family, genus, or species. • The information provided is the same as you would get when you search for a name on the “SPECIMENS” page.
click here to get list of families
THE SPECIES PAGES PAGE • Access the page by clicking on “SPECIES PAGES.” • This page provides a list of families and for each provides a description of the family and descriptions of the genera and species of the family that are known from Saba. • Clicking on a family name, a generic name, or a species name leads to a description of that taxon. • To date, only a few families have been provided with descriptions.
Family, generic, and species names will appear on this page as descriptions are completed. Click on any name to see a description. For example, click on Myrtaceae.
THE MYRTACEAE FAMILY PAGE APPEARS authored by M. L. KAWASAKI
THE COMMON NAMES PAGE • Access the page by clicking on “COMMON NAMES.” • This page allows searching for all specimens identified as having a common name. • In addition, there is a common name list to select from.
Search for a common name in the search box or browse the list for a common name and then click on those of interest.
THE KEYS PAGE • Access the page by clicking on “KEYS.” • This page provides a list of keys currently available for the flowering plants of Saba. • Clicking on a key name leads to a Lucid 3 key of that group of plants. • There is a draft family key available. • As keys to the families are completed, links will be provided to them on the keys page.
KEY TO FLOWERING PLANT FAMILIES OF SABA CHARACTER PANEL ALL FAMILIES PANEL CHARACTERS CHOSEN PANEL FAMILIES ELIMINATED PANEL THE PLANT WE WISH TO KEY OUT HAS THORNS, OPPOSITE LEAVES, STIPULES, AND EPIGYNOUS OVARIES
PRESENCE OF THORNS SELECTED BECAUSE IT IS MOST OBVIOUS plant armature selected 16 families remain 92 families eliminated one character used
NEXT, THE PRESENCE OF STIPULES IS SELECTED seven families remain
NEXT, OPPOSITE LEAVES IS SELECTED the unknown is a Rubiaceae CLICK ON ICON NEXT TO RUBIACEAE FOR LIST OF SPECIES IN FAMILY
Because there is not yet a key to the species of Rubiaceae, the only way to get a species determination of the unknown plant is to examine the images attached to the collections and compare them with the unknown. Looking at the names in the list suggests that Randia aculeata (meaning prickly) is likely the unknown plant.
note the spines Images of Randia aculeata match the unknown.
RESOURCES(links to the following resources are on most pages) • Glossary. • Learn Saban Plants. • Guidelines for contributors. • Support our work.
LEARN SABAN PLANTS Visit this page to learn more about Saban plants and tropical botany.
GLOSSARY Search for botanical terms that you do not understand. As time permits many of the terms will be illustrated with drawings or photos.
INSTRUCTIONS FOR PREPARING FAMILY TREATMENTS ARE FOUND HERE. Those interested in contributing should contact S. A. Mori at firstname.lastname@example.org.
SUPPORT OUR WORK Get something in return for supporting our work.
WE HOPE THAT THIS PRESENTATION WILL HELP YOU LEARN MORE ABOUT THE FLOWERING PLANTS OF SABA.