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Introduction to Latex WorkshopPowerPoint Presentation

Introduction to Latex Workshop

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Why use Latex?

- Compared to WYSIWYG
- Superior typographical quality
- Output device independent
- Portability
- Document longevity
- Macros and other programmatic features
- Mathematical typesetting

Drawbacks of Latex

- More moving parts
- Difficult to remember commands
- Preview delay
- Syntax errors
- Adding new font

Body

Basics- Two minimum parts needed for a .tex document
- Preamble
- Global commands and page layout

- Body
- Everything else

- Preamble

- Example

- \documentclass{article}
- \begin{document}
- \end{document}

First .tex Document

- Start editor
- TeXnicCenter

- Type
- Save
- E Drive, somename

- Run –Build, current
- Latex => PS => PDF

- View – pdf, dvi, ps

- \documentclass{article}
- \begin{document}
- Type something in the body of the document.
- \end{document}

The Preamble

Some basics in the Preamble

Commonly used Document Classesdocumentclass for layout and sectioning

- Article: Ideal for a short paper (divided into sections, subsections, etc). Typeset to be printed double-sided.
- Book: Class to be used to typeset a book (chapters, sections, etc). Typeset to be printed double-sided.
- Report: (Almost) identical to the book class but for single-sided printing.
- Other classes include letter, slides, beamer, etc.

Document Class Options

Example:

- \documentclass[12pt, twoside, fleqn}{article}
- %Quick comment - anything after % doesn’t show-up in final document

- Default - 10pt, one sided, centered equations
- -Order of options is unimportant

Packages

\usepackage{package}

Packages – a set of LaTex commands stored in a file with extension .sty

- Two packages and their usage – there are hundreds!! :
- amsmath
- Adds a variety of typesetting for math beyond basic LaTex
- Added fonts – provides hundreds of symbols

- graphicsx
- Allows basic import of graph pictures

\usepackage{amscd, amsmath, amsthm, amssymb}

\usepackage[dvips]{graphicx}

- \pageheight, \pagewidth - Height and width of the page to create (i.e. size of paper you'd print on).
- \topmargin - Margin at top of page above all printing. Add 1 inch (so that, for example, setting \topmargin to 0.25in would produce a top margin of 1.25 inches).
- \evensidemargin - Left margin on even numbered pages. Add 1 inch (as with \topmargin).
- \oddsidemargin - Left margin on odd numbered pages. Add 1 inch (as with \topmargin).
- \headheight - Height of the header (the header is text that appears atop all pages).
- \headsep - Distance from bottom of header to the body of text on a page.
- \topskip - Distance from top of main text box to the baseline of the first line of text in the main text box.
- \textheight, \textwidth - Height and width of main text box.
- \footskip - Distance from bottom of body to the bottom of the footer (the footer is the text at the bottom of each page).
- \parskip - Distance between paragraphs.
- \parindent - Amount of indentation at the first line of a paragraph.

Example Preamble

\documentclass{article}

\pagestyle{empty} % this is mostly for headers and footers

%options: empty, plain, headings, myheadings

\topmargin= -0.25in %plus 1inch

\oddsidemargin= -0.25in %plus 1inch

\evensidemargin= -0.25in %plus 1inch

\textheight=9in

\textwidth=6.5in

\parindent= -.5in %paragraph indent

%\noindent, \indent

\usepackage{amsmath, amssymb}

\usepackage[dvips]{graphicx}

\begin{document}

Testing different styles of page set-up

\end{document}

Anatomy of Article Class

Title Page Option – Top Matter

\documentclass[titlepage]{article}

\begin{document}

\title{How to Start a Latex File – or whatever you want to call you paper}

\author{Your Name\\

School CSUN\\

Northridge\\}

\date{\today}

\maketitle

this is a test

\end{document}

[titlepage] option creates a separate page for the title

The \\ double backslashes indicate a new line

\date{you can put anything here}

\maketitle, to create the title page

Equation Display

Math equations in a sentence using $ $

My first integral: $ \int x^2 dx $

Math equations independent using \[ \] or $$ $$

My first integral: \[ \int x^2 dx \]

Some Others:

\begin{math} x^2 \end{math}

\begin{displaymath} some ~ math ~ thing \end{displaymath}

\begin{equation} equation ~ is ~ numbered \end{equation}

\begin{eqnarray} spaces ~ aren’t ~ noticed \end{eqnarray}

Spacing in Math Modeas well as regular mode

$$ \begin{aligned} x+y \\ x+\,y \\ x+~ y \\ x+\:y \\ x+\;y\\ x+\quad y\\ x+\qquad y \\ x+\!y \\ \end{aligned} $$

Example Section and Subsections

\section{1st Section}This is the first section. $a^2 + b^2 = c^2$

\subsection{1st Subsection}First subsection. \[ \sqrt{4}=2 \]

\paragraph{Paragraph} A notable paragraph, maybe.

\subparagraph{Subparagraph}Notable, maybe not.

\section{2nd Section}

\subsection{ 2nd Subsection}

Try this \cite{test} reference.

%put this in the body

\begin{thebibliography}{9}

%put this at the end of the document before it ends

\bibitem{test} Jens test, Latex Workshop, November 2006.

\end{thebibliography}

I Need Some Space!

\begin{document}This is a sample to illustrates how \LaTeX\ treats space.\end{document}

What happens?

Basically, all the spacing is ignored, except new paragraph indent

\hspace – horizontal spacing of your choice

\vspace – vertical spacing of your choice, need line space after command

I \hspace{2in} like \hspace{1in} space.\vspace{.5in}

In every direction.

I\hfill like a lot of\hfill space.\vfillIn every direction.

\hfil – uses as much horizontal space as possible on the page

\vfil – uses as much vertical space

Using \\ forces a line beak \\[10cm]

Use ~ stops from being broken across lines and adds a space. Ex: Prof.~Horn

\\

~

\newline

There are more space options

Font Size and Style

Exercise in size:

When I was born, I was {\tiny tiny}. When I got older, I thought some day I would be {\Huge huge}. But instead, {\small I'm still small.}

From smallest to largest

Styles

\tiny \scriptsize\footnotesize \small\normalsize \large\Large \LARGE\huge \Huge

\emph{text} – italicizes the text

\textbf{text} – bold face

\underline{text} - underline

\textsl{text} – slant

- And on and on

Exercise in style:

When something is \emph{really}, \textbf{really} important, you can \underline{underline it}. If you \underline{\textbf{\emph{must do all three}}}, then you can nest them.

Justification - Centering, etc.

\begin{flushleft} I feel skewed\end{flushleft}

\begin{flushright} I feel off center \end{flushright}

We can center text using -

\begin{center} I’m Well Balanced\end{center}

We can justify it left or right with -

Itemize list

If I want a list with numbers

\begin{enumerate}

\item $b\in B$

\item $2^{\alpha}$

\end{enumerate}

If I want a list with bullets

\begin{itemize}

\item $\int_3^{t}xdx$

\item $\sum_{i=0}^n i$

\end{itemize}

If I want a list with titles of my choice

\begin{description}

\item[1st option] $\frac{1}{2}$

\item[2nd option] $\sqrt{\pi}$

\end{description}

The Math

$\sqrt{x}$

$x^2$

$\sqrt[6]{n+3}$

$x_2$

$\frac{x^2}{y}$

$x^{n+2}$

$x_{n+2}$

$\int^t_0 xdx$

$x_{n+2}^{n+2}$

$\int xdx$

$ \sum_{n=0}^\infty n$

I(z) = \sim (\frac{\pi}{2} z^2 ) \sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{(-1)^n \pi^{2n}}{1 \cdot 3 \cdots (4n+1) } z^{4n+1}-\cos(\frac{\pi}{2} z^2) \sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{(-1)^n \pi^{2n+1}}{1\cdot 2 \cdots (4n+1)}z^{4n+3}\end{equation}

\[\sum_{p_1<p_2<\cdots,p_{n-k}}^{(1,2,\ldots,n)}\Delta_{\begin{array}{l}p_1p_2\cdots p_{n-k}\\p_1p_2\cdots p_{n-k}\end{array}} \sum_{q_1<q_2<\cdots q_k}\left |\begin{array}{llcl}a_{q_1q_1} &a_{q_1q_2} & \cdots & a_{q_1q_k}\\

a_{q_2q_1} &a_{q_2q_2} & \cdots & a_{q_2q_k}\\

\multicolumn{4}{c}\dotfill\\

a_{q_kq_1} &a_{q_kq_2} & \cdots & a_{q_kq_k}\\

\end{array}\right| \]

\[\begin{CD} p_{n-k}\\p_1p_2\cdots p_{n-k}\end{array}} \sum_{q_1<q_2<\cdots q_k}\left |\begin{array}{llcl}a_{q_1q_1} &a_{q_1q_2} & \cdots & a_{q_1q_k}\\

\mathbb{C} @>H_{1}>> \mathbb{C} @>>H_{2}>> \mathbb{C}\\

@VP_{c,3}VV @VP_{\bar{c},3}VV @VVP_{-c,3}V\\

\mathbb{C} @>H_{1}>> \mathbb{C} @>>H_{2}>> \mathbb{C}\\

\end{CD}

\]

Theorems and Axioms p_{n-k}\\p_1p_2\cdots p_{n-k}\end{array}} \sum_{q_1<q_2<\cdots q_k}\left |\begin{array}{llcl}a_{q_1q_1} &a_{q_1q_2} & \cdots & a_{q_1q_k}\\

\newtheorem{theorem}{Name Theorem}

% type in preamble

\begin{theorem}[Weierstrass] Every $\cdots$ \end{theorem} % type in body

\begin{theorem}[2nd Theorem] Every $\cdots$ \end{theorem} % type in body

\newtheorem{axiom}{Axiom}

% type in preamble

\begin{axiom}[Test]Every $\cdots$ \end{axiom}

% type in body

\begin{lemma} p_{n-k}\\p_1p_2\cdots p_{n-k}\end{array}} \sum_{q_1<q_2<\cdots q_k}\left |\begin{array}{llcl}a_{q_1q_1} &a_{q_1q_2} & \cdots & a_{q_1q_k}\\

Let $\Theta$ be a complete congruence relation of $D^{\langle 2 \rangle}$ such that \begin{equation}\label{E:rigid}\langle 1, d \rangle \equiv \langle 1, 1 \rangle \pmod{\Theta}, \end{equation} for some $d \in D$ with $d < 1$. Then $\Theta =\iota$. \end{lemma}

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