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Quick Write • You meet a magical genie who wants to grant you 3 wishes. You need to separate 3 mixtures: • sand with gold in it • two different liquids • salt dissolved in water and ask the genie to use magic to help you but his magic doesn’t work. • Write a story on how science can help you separate mixtures when magic fails to work
Solutions – are mixtures • A solution appears to be a single substance, but it is actually a homogeneousmixture composed of particles of two or more substances that are distributed evenly among each other. • Parts of Solutions: • solute is the substance that is dissolved. • solventis the substance in which the solute is dissolved.
A substance that is insoluble, or unable to dissolve, forms a mixture that is not a solution. • Solutions may be liquids, gases, or solids. • Alloys are solid solutions in which metals or nonmetals are dissolved in other metals.
Particles in Solution • The particles in solutions are so small that they will not come out of solution. • They also cannot be removed by filtration • Solute particles are so small that they do not scatter light. Examine figure 4 on page 145
Concentration of Solutions • Concentration is the amount of a particular substance in a given quantity of a mixture or solution. • If there is a lot of solute in a solvent the mixture is called Concentrated • If there is a small amount of solute for the solvent, the mixture is called Dilute • The terms concentrated and dilute do not tell you the exact concentration of solute.
Solubility Solubility is the ability of one substance to dissolve in another at a certain temperature and pressure
Solubility Rates Many factors affect the rate at which solutes dissolve in solvents: • Temperature: raising the temperature of the solvent usually raises the solubility • Types of Substances: Different solutes have different rates of solubility • Surface Area: A solute with more surface area will dissolve at a greater rate • Agitation (energy): Agitating a solution can allow for greater solubility
Solutions Questions • If a spoonful of salt is mixed in a glass of water, what is the water called? • A solute c. a solvent • A solution d. an element 2. What is a solid solution of metal dissolved in a metal called? • An element c. a pure substance • An alloy d. a compound
3. Identify the solute(s) and solvent in each solution. HINT: A SOLUTE dissolves in a SOLVENT! 4. What liquid is called the “universal solvent”? 5. Which would have the most SOLUTE: a glass of very sweet Kool-Aid or a glass of barely sweet Kool-Aid?
3. A measure of the amount of solute dissolved in a given amount of solvent is referred to as: 4. Particles of two or more substances that are evenly distributed among each other form a:
Word Bank -Filter -Element -Solution -Mixture -Compound