Goals & Outcomes of Instruction. Child engagement. Growth and change of whole child Social competence and prosocial behavior. Use of skills in daily functioning. Assist children in spending their lives with their families in their communities. Prevent additional problems or disabilities.
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Center-based: Families bring their infant or toddler to a program at an agency setting where appropriate services are provided by professionals and paraprofessionals. Intervention sessions are scheduled either on an individual basis or in small groups.
Home-based: Individualized to meet the child's needs with whatever resources are available in the home.
Regular child-care settings: ”Normalized" settings which provide opportunities for integration.
Multidisciplinary: Professionals work independently evaluating and serving the client in their own domains. Each applies the expertise and techniques of his or her discipline in isolation of what professionals inother disciplines are doing concurrently with a child or parent. Little or no interaction or ongoing communication occurs among professionals dealing with the same client.
Interdisciplinary: Professionals form various disciplines work together cooperatively in both planning and delivering services to the child or parent. Emphasis is upon teamwork and interaction among team members, who help and rely upon each other to provide well-coordinated, integrated services for he individual, although each discipline ultimately delivers the service in its own domain.
Transdisciplinary: Professionals from various disciplines work together cooperatively by educating one another in the skills and practice of their disciplines so that one team member can act as the single agent for carrying out services with a designated child or parent.
e.g. Curriculum based measures: assess performance along a continuum of objectives, especially within a developmentally sequenced curriculum
What are the questions you should ask when choosing an assessment instrument?
Identification: process of locating infants and toddlers and their families who might be eligible for early intervention.
Screening: The process of identifying those children in need of further in-depth assessment.
In-depth assessment for diagnosis and determination of eligibility: Comprehensive assessment used to verify the presence of conditions that may qualify a child for early intervention/ECSE services.
Monitoring of child progress during intervention: According to the IEP/IFSP there will be ongoing monitoring of services.
Population Tracking: As part of Part C services, states are required to have a system for compiling data on the # of infants in need of serves; the number served, and the types of services provided
Procedures used by the assessment team to:
a) determine the individual’s current level of functioning
b) clarify strengths and needs
c) identify special services needed by the student
d) identify intervention techniques that can be incorporated into the IEP
e) revise these plans as necessary
a) use multiple perspectives
b) use multiple techniques
c) assess on multiple occasions
d) assess the environment
e) use authentic item content
f) make collaborative decisions
g) assess environment
Criterion Referenced Assessments: compares a child’s performance with a specified level or standard of achievement; Curriculum-based assessments are a sub-set
Participant Interviews: ask professionals or caregivers to record their perceptions of the child’s functioning.
Systematic Observations: involves structured observation and recording of behavior and yields quantifiable data
Anecdotal Recordings: a written description of a child’s behavior in a particular situation/setting/interaction
Classroom-based: in the environment in which instruction will occur
1. Family-centered collaboration is basic to the process
2. The natural environment of the child and the family should be the environment for the development and implementation of the IFSP
3. The process is critical
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Bricker, D. (1995). The challenge of inclusion. Journal of Early Intervention, 19, 179-194.
Brown, L., Schwarz, P., Udvari-Solner, A., Kampschroer, E.F., Johnson, F., Jorgenson, J. & Gruenewald, L. (1991). How much time should students with severe intellectual disabilities spend in regular education classrooms and elsewhere? Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 16, 39-47.
Fuchs, D., & Fuchs, L. (1994). Inclusive education and the radicalization of special education reform. Exceptional Children, 60, 294-309.
Henley, M., Ramsey, R. S., & Algozzine, R. F. (1996). Characteristics of and strategies for teaching students with mild disabilities. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Karp, Joan M. (1996). Assessing Environments. In M. McLean, D.B. Baily, & M. Wolery (Eds.), Assessing infants and preschoolers with special needs, (pp. 234-267). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Merrill.
Lutzker, J. R., & Campbell, R. (1994). Ecobehavioral family intervention in developmental disabilities. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks Cole Publishing.
Mowder, B. A. (1997). Family dynamics. In A. H. Widerstrom, B. A. Mowder, & S. R. Sandall, (Eds.), Infant development and risk: An introduction, (pp. 125-154). Baltimore, MD: Brookes.
National Association for the Education of Young children (NAEYC); Division for Early Childhood of the Council for Exceptional Children (DEC/CEC), & National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS). (1996). Guidelines for preparation of early childhood professionals. Washington, DC: NAEYC.